In 2013, the number of ageing population of China will record 202 million with 14.8% ageing rate; what’s more, the number are increasing by near 8 million one year. Until 2030, there will be one ages 60 in every 4 Chinese. Unbalancing fertility that caused by long standing One Child Policy is speeding the population ageing of China; however, the level of caring aging people’s life condition, medicine treatment and mind health is lagged behind, which has worsen aging of Chinese.
In 1950, the total fertility rate of Chinese women reached 5.81%, and the number had dropped down to 1.44% in 2010 which normally staid between 2.4 to 2.1.Now, china is severely facing few-generating.
Late 20th century, government carried out One Child Policy to control the surging of population which rapidly declined the fertility rate and speeded the population ageing progress simultaneously. Due to the high pressure cause by large number of population, policy makers decided to stick on One Child Policy that in advance led China peaked in population ageing inevitably.
It’s reported that 6.07 million families in China got their certification of only one child in 1979; 30 years gone by, now China is in a age called “421 family” composed by 4 elders, 2 adults and 1 child.
Some developed countries stepped into ageing society early have embraced more than 20 thousand dollars per capital GNP which had lay a firm foundation to settle the ageing problem. On the contrary, per capital GNP of China just reached 3 thousand dollars when she stepped into the ageing society. Weak performance in economy has impeded the solution of population ageing. In 2012, new pension system in rural and urban social security system had covered nationwide which was 8 years early than the set plan, but several problems of those systems remained.
<Tracing survey of Chinese urban and rural elder population in 2010> released by China's old-age scientific research center shows that the average retirement pension are 1527yuan in urban and 74yuan in rural which apparently fail to match the cost in elder nursing home.
New rural pension and urban social security system still stay at low level; moreover, inflation had devalued the pension as well. Basic pension failed to attract young people’s attention due to the weak performance it showed in life security.
Although new rural pension and urban security had covered nationwide already, the portably of them could not provide a good way to transfer.
In the other words, urbanization had draw young people to work in the city and “left-behind elderly” encountered a problem in pension benefit.
In consideration of the problem on providing for the aged in rural, Chinese government had carried out a policy name “mutual help for aged” aiming at the population ageing. The “mutual help” means that elders help each other in their life. So far, the central government had allocated 3 billons Yuan to popularize the policy, but it is difficult to measure the real effect and the problem hidden there.
Medical service also encountered severe conditions. Chinese elder people are more likely to suffer from illness, disability and high cost in medical service. They had occupied 80% medical recourse, and medical fee had taken up 8 to 9 percents in GDP. More than half people who age was beyond 60 carried diseases like high blood pressure. It’s pity that the system, innovation and association medical service were lagged behind.
Despite the subordinated status of the nursing institutions in the elder welfare service system, they played a indispensable role.
Data from the ministry of civil affair tells that it’s uneasy to sign in a nursing agency for older because the large amount of them. So far china have 41.8 thousands agency for elder along with 3.65 millions beds. Nevertheless, every 50 elders could not get a bed in average.
Besides that, pension benefit system should not only ensure the basic need of elder’s life but also numerous professional help in psychology and medicine. The trend of pension benefit system should be socialized, it is to say, society supports elder instead of family, and government need to pay more in it.
With the development of economy and society, along with the population ageing, population decline in family and urbanization. People call for more elder support service.
Survey from Ministry of civil affair shows that there are more than 50% empty nest family in urban and about 70% in major cities, among which 10% live single. All there empty nest elder cannot get fit care in life even they are sick, no mention the emotion solace. Population ageing and laggard social security system are examining government’s ability to map out the pension benefit affairs.