Author: ttt222

A Brief History of Intolerance in America [Copy link] 中文

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Post time 2012-6-21 16:15:14 |Display all floors
“Cut off the foreign snake heads. People who can’t find jobs in the U.S. and Europe come to China to grab our money, engage in human trafficking, and spread deceitful lies to encourage emigration. Foreign spies seek out Chinese girls to mask their espionage and pretend to be tourists while compiling maps and GPS data for Japan, Korea, and the West. We kicked out that foreign @@@ and closed Al Jazeera’s Beijing bureau. We should shut up those who demonize China and send them packing.”

Yang Rui appeared to soften his tone slightly in a follow-up posting two days later. “Sweeping out the foreign trash is necessary,” he wrote on May 18. However, China “should be on guard against xenophobia and the perversions of the Boxer movement,” Yang wrote, referencing the violent anti-foreigner crusade that swept China from 1899 to 1901.

“Yang Rui is not a loose cannon. For him to say this suggests he feels like what he is saying is supported by the people above him,” says Beijing-based independent Internet analyst Bill Bishop. “You see all kinds of concerns expressed about hostile foreign forces now. There seems to be a shift toward telling Chinese they must watch out for foreigners. I think it is going to be a long, hot summer, in more ways than one. It just feels strange.”

U.S. Ambassador to China Gary Locke has also gotten pulled into the melee. The state-owned Beijing Daily in an editorial in early May criticized Locke, citing not only his embassy’s decision to shelter blind activist Chen Guangcheng for six days, but also questioning the ambassador’s motivations for acting like a man of the people, citing his decision to travel economy class, carry his own suitcases, and use coupons to purchase Starbucks coffee. (Chinese netizens earlier praised Locke for his humble attitude, comparing it unfavorably with their own leaders’ tendencies.)

“Is he trying to improve the Sino-US relationship or using any means to pick faults and make trouble, which might create new and wider gaps between China and the US?” the Beijing Daily editorial asked rhetorically on May 4.

After that editorial was scrubbed from China’s Internet, the Beijing Daily posted a microblog on May 14, asking Locke to declare his salary and assets, and reposted a microblogger’s comments on the ambassador, perhaps trying to defuse public anger over widespread beliefs that Chinese officials hide luxurious lifestyles funded by corrupt activities. “Gary Locke lives in the US embassy which costs billions of US dollars. He commutes in a bullet-proof limousine,” the microblogger reposted by Beijing Daily wrote, adding: “Can this be called modesty? And why does Gary Locke not announce these facts to the public. … So cut the show of incorruptibility!”

That effort, however, seems to have boomeranged after the U.S. government quickly posted online Locke’s salary ($179,700 plus $30,000 education subsidy for each of his three children) and assets (worth between $2.35 million and $8.12 million). That spawned an impassioned debate among Chinese netizens discussing why Chinese officials still don’t publicly declare their personal assets. Many government officials in China are now required to report their assets to the Communist Party, but those figures are not released publicly.

“China is unique among the big countries where such law [on public disclosure of official assets] does not exist,” wrote one commenter on the People’s Daily Online English website on May 16. “Even in Taiwan, leaders do not stand above the law. [Chen Shui-bian], the former head of Taiwan is locked up in prison for corruption,” the commenter identified as Fat-Chun Leung Ki wrote. “The lack of such [law] in China allows leaders to perpetuate their crime.”

“Things are very unsettled in China right now and people are feeling frustrated,” says James McGregor, senior counselor at Apco Worldwide in Beijing. “In China, it is easier to express your frustrations toward foreigners than toward the government. For some in the government, pointing fingers at foreigners is better than having them pointing back in your direction.”
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Post time 2012-6-21 16:15:44 |Display all floors
Qing Dynasty
Anti-Western sentiment manifested itself in the Opium Wars and Boxer Rebellion when the Righteous Harmony Society attacked westerners, missionaries and converted Chinese Christians. The Qing Dynasty was divided between anti-Westerners, moderates and reformists. A Manchu prince, Zaiyi, and a Chinese general Dong Fuxiang who led 10,000 Muslim Kansu Braves attacked foreigners and defeated them at the Battle of Langfang during the rebellion.
[edit]Muslims
Hatred of foreigners from high ranking Chinese Muslim officers stemmed from the way foreigners handled Chinese affairs, rather than for religious reasons, the same reason other non Muslim Chinese hated foreigners. Promotion and wealth were other motives among Chinese Muslim military officers for anti foreignism.[9]
[edit]Kuomintang Anti westernism
Many members of the Kuomintang party were anti-Western.
Kuomintang Muslim General Bai Chongxi led a wave of anti foreignism in Guangxi, attacking American, European, and other foreigners and missionaries, and generally making the province unsafe for foreigners. Westerners fled from the province, and some Chinese Christians were also attacked as imperialist agents. Americans, French, and British were attacked.[10] The three goals of his movement were anti-foreigism, anti-imperialism, and anti-religion.[11]
As a Kuomintang member, Bai and the other Guangxi clique members allowed the Communists to continue attacking foreigners and smash idols, since they shared the goal of expelling the foreign powers from China, but they stopped Communists from initiating social change.[12]
General Bai also wanted to aggressively expel foreign powers from other areas of China. Bai gave a speech in which he said that the minorities of China were suffering under foreign oppression. He cited specific examples, such as the Tibetans under the British, the Manchus under the Japanese, the Mongols under the Outer Mongolian People's Republic, and the Uyghurs and the Hui of Xinjiang under the Soviet Union. Bai called upon China to assist them in expelling the foreigners from those lands. He personally wanted to lead an expedition to seize back Xinjiang to bring it under Chinese control, in the style that Zuo Zongtang led during the Dungan revolt. It is important to noted that Bai Chongxi is a Hui minority himself.[13]
The Blue Shirts Society, a fascist paramilitary organization within the Kuomintang modeled after Mussolini's blackshirts, was anti foreign and anti communist, and stated that its agenda was to expel foreign (Japanese and Western) Imperialists from China, crush communism, and eliminate feudalism.[14] In addition to being anti Communist, some Kuomintang members, like Chiang Kaishek's right hand man Dai Li were anti American, and they wanted to expel American influence.[15]
The Kuomintang party leader Chiang Kai-shek initiated the New Life Movement to crush western influences in China.
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Interpretations of history
The causes of anti-Western sentiment in China include the collective memory of the period of Chinese history beginning with the Opium Wars of the 1840s and ending with the expulsion of the Japanese after the Second World War which is known to Chinese as the "century of humiliation"[16] (simplified Chinese: 百年国耻; traditional Chinese: 百年國恥; pinyin: bǎinián guóchǐ),[17] when China was "attacked, bullied, and torn asunder by imperialists".[18] Kenneth Lieberthal, a political science professor at the University of Michigan, has argued that the demonstrations in Western cities during the Olympic torch relay had "deep historical resonance" amongst Chinese, who suspect that after China's recovery from its fall in international stature from 150 years ago, "the West is trying to humiliate them again".[7] Supporting this view, a 2007 survey found that 45% of the Chinese general public believed that the U.S. was "trying to prevent China from becoming a great power" compared to 32% who believed that the U.S. accepted "China's status as a rising power", 23% were "not sure".[6] Although this sentiment has been partially assuaged by the return to China of Hong Kong and of Macau, the unresolved political status of Taiwan remains for some a reminder of China's weakness and division.[18]
James Kelly, former US assistant secretary for East Asian and Pacific Affairs, has noted that nationalistic sentiments and anger over the torch protests was more concentrated amongst Chinese under the age of 30.[1] Suisheng Zhao[8] and Kenneth B. Pyle[19] argue that a shift in Chinese education policy that these youth experienced is partly responsible for their increased nationalism. Zheng Wang argues that by the 1990s the international situation had reduced the appeal of Communism as a legitimizing ideology for China's rulers. As a result, the leadership reversed many of the Communist Party's changes to Chinese historiography from 1949 that interpreted Chinese history as a history of class struggle. Announced in 1991 and fully functioning by 1994, this "Patriotic Education Campaign" reinterpreted history in national terms, rehabilitating figures like General Tso who suppressed a peasant rebellion but stemmed a Russian invasion of Xinjiang, and acknowledging the role of Chinese nationalist (rather than just communist) fighters in the Second Sino-Japanese War. Students find personal resonance more in such narratives than in previous classes about Marxist doctrine because they hear about the atrocities against China not just from history textbooks but from their parents and grandparents.[18]
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2008 Beijing Olympics torch relay protests


Pro-China Olympic rally in Perth, Australia, 2008
Prior to the 2008 Summer Olympic Games to be held in Beijing, the international leg of the Olympic torch relay was subject to widespread demonstrations primarily over China's human rights record and Tibetan independence.[23] In London, thirty-seven arrests were made when protestors clashed with police as the torch made its way through the city[23] whilst in Paris the relay was cut short and the torch transported by bus after protestors disrupted the procession.[24]
Protests also took place in Athens,[25] Istanbul,[26] Buenos Aires,[27] Bangkok,[28] Canberra,[29] Nagano,[30] and Seoul.[31] In response, Chinese government officials condemned the protests[32] and overseas Chinese organised 'pro-China' counter-demonstrations at torch processions,[33] joined by counter-protests in many Chinese cities.[3]
Despite the protests being aimed at specific issues, both Western media sources, such as the BBC,[34] and Chinese media sources, such as CCTV,[35] referred to the protestors as being 'anti-China'. In one instance, Chinese state-run news source China Daily reported that "[a]ll the recent protests against the 2008 Olympic torch relay are not against Chinese government, as some protesters repeated. They are against all of the ordinary Chinese people living everywhere in the world".[36]
Chinese activists organised protests outside Carrefour stores in at least 10 Chinese cities[37] and called on shoppers to boycott the French retailer following protests in Paris. Messages distributed via the internet and mobile phones had accused the company of supporting the Dalai Lama,[38] a claim denied by Carrefour CEO Jose-Luis Duran.[39]
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Accusations of media bias
Chinese Netizens in both China and overseas have argued[who?] that some Western media sources had given dishonest reports about riots in Tibet in March 2008. An article by the state-run China Daily reports that several Chinese activists accused, with substantiation, several Western media sources of misreporting and distorting the incident to tarnish China's image.[40] Chinese sources opined on the matter, arguing that Western media reports of the Tibet violence had displayed "ignorance and prejudice",[5] that the reporting of China more generally was "with few exceptions, only stories about censorship, spoiled food products, human rights issues, dangerous toys and the like... are published",[4] and "stoking the young people's repulsion to the West and in turn aroused the patriotic passion of the young people".[41] Several websites[quantify] were created to challenge the Western media's reporting of China, including anti-cnn.com,[42] whose founder Rao Jin[41] described Western media reporting as "white supremacy".[43]
In addition, the Chinese government has weighed in on the issue of media bias. Fu Ying, the Chinese Ambassador to the United Kingdom wrote that the Western media had attempted to 'demonise' China[44] while in April 2008, the Chinese Foreign Ministry demanded an apology from CNN after news commentator Jack Cafferty referred to the Chinese as a "bunch of goons and thugs" for which CNN subsequently apologized.[42]
James Kelly, however, has argued that China's media censorship itself may be a major factor in fostering anti-Western sentiment, alleging that China's media gives a "very one-sided" view of the West.[1]
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Cyber attacks
Following CNN's allegedly biased reporting regarding the March 2008 unrest in Tibet, CNN's website was hacked and replaced with a page proclaiming that "Tibet WAS,IS,and ALWAYS WILL BE a part of China". According to a report by Nick Lazaredes for Journeyman Pictures patriotic hacking by Chinese nationalists is on the rise and Western security experts estimate that there are up to 300,000 Chinese hackers ready to wage a cyber-war.[43]
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Yang Rui, the host of the English-language program "Dialogue" on China Central Television's international channel, has been a reasonably effective ambassador for the Communist Party's world view. He welcomes foreign guests on his program with a a cultured British accent and poses challenging questions. He seemed destined to become the figurehead of China's quest for global soft power.

Which makes his explosion last Wednesday all the more shocking. Mr. Yang posted a rant against "foreign thugs" and "snake heads" on his microblog: "People who can't find jobs in the U.S. and Europe come to China to grab our money, engage in human trafficking and spread deceitful lies to encourage emigration."

Mr. Yang concluded, "Foreign spies seek out Chinese girls to mask their espionage and pretend to be tourists while compiling maps and GPS data for Japan, Korea and the West. We kicked out that foreign @@@ and closed Al Jazeera's Beijing bureau. We should shut up those who demonize China and send them packing."

The foreign reporter Mr. Yang refers to is Melissa Chan, a well-respected correspondent for Al Jazeera. The Foreign Ministry refused to renew her visa or issue a visa for a replacement, forcing her to leave China and the network to close its Beijing bureau two weeks ago.

Ms. Chan's expulsion was the first of an accredited foreign journalist in 14 years. A government spokesman accused her of breaking unspecified laws, but the move seems to be part of a campaign of criticism against Western journalists for reporting too many negative stories about the Communist Party.


Beijing Public Security Bureau
Beijing police appeal for help catching foreigners overstaying their visas.

Instead of apologizing, Mr. Yang has gone on the offensive against his critics. Over the weekend he threatened to sue an American blogger, Charlie Custer, for calling him a racist xenophobe. He also asked the police to investigate Mr. Custer's background.

It's no coincidence that this campaign to arouse public anger against foreigners comes after the fall of Chongqing boss ** and blind activist Chen Guangcheng taking shelter in the U.S. Embassy. The revelations about Mr. Bo confirmed suspicions about the extent of corruption among the nation's top leaders. Local officials persecuting with impunity a blind man who sought to help others gain the protection of the law against forced abortions pretty much sums up the ugly side of China's rise. Both cases severely damaged the Party's prestige.

And when the Party is under attack, it lashes out at foreigners. The police are asking the public to report young foreigners who overstay their visas or work illegally. The appeal features a graphic of a fist like that used for "strike hard" campaigns against serious crime.

In the age of Youtube, Beijing will never lack evidence of Westerners behaving badly in the Middle Kingdom. State-run television picked up video from the Internet of two recent cases, a drunken British man who assaulted a Chinese woman and then suffered a well-deserved beating at the hands of passers-by, and a Russian man who swore at another passenger on a train.

Such incidents are perhaps newsworthy, but they should be taken in context. Instead organs of the Chinese state are trying to create a siege mentality for short-term political gain. There is a real danger this will lead to violence against innocent foreign residents.

Beijing is right that it is losing the soft-culture battle with the West over societal values. Chinese are unhappy that the products they buy are often fake, the air they breathe is incredibly polluted, and too many party officials look the other way and are on the take. Blaming the foreign media for reporting these problems won't make them go away, and it will only further undermine China's international image.
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