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专题翻译Bully(2) [Copy link] 中文

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Post time 2010-1-12 09:11:24 |Display all floors
Bullying: what is it?

欺负:它是什么?

On this page
本页内容

What is bullying?什么欺负?
The twelve types of bullying欺负的12种类型
Forms that bullying takes欺负表现出的各种形式
Hierarchical bullying, peer bullying, upward bullying等级欺负、同辈欺负、向上欺负
An answer to the question, Why me? 对于问题为什么是我?的一个回答
How bullies select their targets 欺负者们如何选择他们的目标
Events that trigger bullying触发欺负行为的事件
Personal qualities of targets that bullies find irresistible
另欺负者感到难以抗拒的、目标者拥有的个人特点
The difference between bullying and harassment欺负和骚扰之间的区别

On another page在另一页
Definitions of bullying欺负的定义
What is mobbing?什么是围攻?
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Post time 2010-1-12 09:12:16 |Display all floors
What is bullying?
什么是欺负?


Bullying is persistent unwelcome behaviour, mostly using unwarranted or invalid criticism, nit-picking, fault-finding, also exclusion, isolation, being singled out and treated differently, being shouted at, humiliated, excessive monitoring, having verbal and written warnings imposed, and much more. In the workplace, bullying usually focuses on distorted or fabricated allegations of underperformance. Click here for definitions of workplace bullying.

欺负是持续的不受欢迎的行为,多数时候采用不合情理的或不当的、站不住脚的批评、挑刺、挑毛病,还有排斥、孤立、被单独拎出来受到不一样的待遇,被吼叫、被羞辱、过度监视、加以口头或书面的警告,等还有很多。在职场中,欺负行为通常集中在了经过扭曲或捏造称工作表现低。点击这里获得职场欺负行为的定义。
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Post time 2010-1-12 09:13:02 |Display all floors
Why do people bully?
为什么人们欺负?


The purpose of bullying is to hide inadequacy. Bullying has nothing to do with managing etc; good managers manage, bad managers bully. Management is managing; bullying is not managing. Therefore, anyone who chooses to bully is admitting their inadequacy, and the extent to which a person bullies is a measure of their inadequacy. Bullies project their inadequacy on to others:

  欺负的目的是掩盖不足。欺负和管理等等毫无关系;优秀的经理者们进行管理,差的经理者们欺负。管理是管理,欺负不是管理。因此,任何一个选择了欺负的人就是在承认他们的不足,而且欺负的程度大小就是对他们不足的大小衡量。欺负是将他们的不足映射到别人身上:

a) to avoid facing up to their inadequacy and doing something about it;
a)以回避直面他们的不足并对其采取行动。
b) to avoid accepting responsibility for their behaviour and the effect it has on others, and,
b)以回避对他们的行为及对别人产生的影响承担责任,以及
c) to reduce their fear of being seen for what they are, namely a weak, inadequate and often incompetent individuals, and,
c)以减少被看见他们真正面目中的恐惧,即:一个弱的、不足的及往往是无能的个体,以及
d) to divert attention away from their inadequacy - in an insecure or badly-managed workplace, this is how inadequate, incompetent and aggressive employees keep their jobs.
d)以将注意力从他们的不足上转移 - 在一个没有安全感或管理很差的工作场所,这就是那些不足、无能和侵略性的员工们如何保住他们工作的方法。

Bullying is an inefficient way of working, resulting in disenchantment, demoralisation, demotivation, disaffection, and alienation. Bullies run dysfunctional and inefficient organisations; staff turnover and sickness absence are high whilst morale, productivity and profitability are low. Prosperity is illusory and such organizations are a bad long-term investment. Projection and denial are hallmarks of the serial bully.

  欺负是一种无效的工作方式,会导致,,,去士气化、去动力化、离心离德,和疏离隔阂。欺负者们运营的组织是不良的和无效的;员工流动率和因病缺勤很高;同时,士气、生产力和赢利能力低。繁荣是虚幻的、这样的组织是一个糟糕的长期投入。映射和否认是连环欺负者的标志性特点。

Bullying is present behind all forms of harassment, discrimination, prejudice, abuse, persecution, conflict and violence. When the bullying has a focus (eg race or gender) it is expressed as racial prejudice or harassment, or sexual discrimination and harassment, and so on. When the bullying lacks a focus (or the bully is aware of the Sex Discrimination Act or the Race Relations Act), it comes out as pure bullying; this is an opportunity to understand the behaviours which underlie almost all reprehensible behavior. I believe bullying is the single most important social issue of today.

  一切形式的骚扰、歧视、偏见、虐待、破坏、冲突和暴力的背后都存在着欺负。当欺负行为具有了一个焦点(例如:种族或性别),它就表现为种族偏见或骚扰,或性别歧视和骚扰,等等。当欺负没有一个焦点(或者,欺负者对性别歧视法案或种族关系法案具有意识),那么它就表现为纯粹的欺负;这是了解在几乎所有应受指责的行为中。。的机会。我相信欺负是当今单一的、最为重要的社会问题。
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Post time 2010-1-12 09:13:54 |Display all floors
Bullying...
欺负


is a form of abuse, and bullies - and unenlightened employers - often go to great lengths to keep their targets quiet, using threats of disciplinary action, dismissal, and gagging clauses. What bullies fear most is exposure of their inadequacy and being called publicly to account for their behavior and its consequences. This makes sense when you remember that the purpose of bullying is to hide inadequacy, and people who bully to hide their inadequacy are often incompetent.

是一种虐待形式,而且欺负者--以及未知情的雇主们  --  经常极力要让他们的目标人安静,用到采取纪律行为的威胁、解雇和缄默条款。欺负者们最为害怕的是暴露他们的不足,并被公开要求对他们的行为及其后果做出解释。这点当你记住了欺负行为的目的是掩盖不足;那些用欺负来掩盖不足的人通常是无能的时,就说得通了。

A bully is a person who
欺负者是一个

•        has never learnt to accept responsibility for their behaviour
从来没有学会如何为自己行为负责的人
•        wants to enjoy the benefits of living in the adult world, but who is unable and unwilling to accept the responsibilities that are a prerequisite for being part of the adult world.
希望享受在成年人世界生活的好处,但是却无法且不愿意接受作为属于成年人世界一部分的前提的责任
•        abdicates and denies responsibility for their behaviour and its consequences (abdication and denial are common features of bullying)
放弃和否定他们对自己的行为及其后果中的责任(放弃和否认是欺负行为的常见特点)
•        is unable and unwilling to recognise the effect of their behaviour on others
无法且不愿意承认自己的行为对别人的影响
•        does not want to know of any other way of behaving
不希望去知道任何别的行为的方法
•        is unwilling to recognise that there could be better ways of behaving.
不愿意承认可能有更好的行为方法存在

Bullying is obsessive and compulsive; the serial bully has to have someone to bully and appears to be unable to survive without a current target.

  欺负行为是执迷型的,有强迫性;连环欺负者非得要有某个人欺负,并且似乎要靠目前的目标人才能赖以为生。

Despite the facade that such people put up, bullies have low self-confidence and low self-esteem, and thus feel insecure. Low self-esteem is a factor highlighted by all studies of bullying. Because such people are inadequate and unable to fulfil the duties and obligations of their position (but have no hesitation in accepting salary), they fear being revealed. This fear of exposure often borders on paranoia.

  尽管这种人树立起的外表,可欺负者却是自信心低,自尊心低,并且从而感到不安全。低自尊是一切对欺负行为研究中的一个显著因素。由于这类人是不足的,且无法履行他们自己职位上的职责和义务(但是在拿薪水上却毫不犹豫),他们害怕被揭露。对暴露的这种恐惧经常近乎于偏执狂。

Bullies are seething with resentment, bitterness, hatred and anger, and often have wide-ranging prejudices as a vehicle for dumping their anger onto others. Bullies are driven by jealousy and envy. Rejection (which cannot be assuaged) is another powerful motivator of bullying.

  欺负者们满腹怨恨、痛楚、憎恨和愤怒,并且经常把范围面广泛的偏见,作为一种将他们的愤怒倾泻在别人身上的工具。欺负者们受到嫉妒和。。的驱使。(无法被缓解的)拒绝是欺负者的另一个欺负行为的强大动力因素。

Bullies are people who have not learned the lesson of consequences, ie that if they behave well there are good consequences (reward), but if they behave badly there are bad consequences (restriction, sanction, punishment, etc). Since childhood, bullies have learnt that they can avoid the unpleasant consequences of bad behaviour through the instinctive response of denial, blame, and feigning victimhood.

  欺负者们是那些过去没有学到后果这一堂课的人们,亦即,如果他们表现好会有好的后果(奖励),可是如果他们表现不好就会存在不好的后果(限制、制裁、惩罚等等)。自从小时候起,欺负者们懂得通过否认、怪罪和装受害人的本能反应他们能去回避坏行为带来的令人不愉快的后果。
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Post time 2010-1-12 09:14:56 |Display all floors
How to spot a bully in your workplace
如何识别你的职场上的一位欺负者。


If you have a serial bully on the staff they will reveal themselves by their department showing excessive rates of

如果你的工作人员中有一位连环欺负者,那么他们会通过他们所在的部门在以下方面表现出过高百分率来暴露自己

•        staff turnover 高员工流动率
•        sickness absence因病缺勤
•        stress breakdowns压力崩溃
•        deaths in service因公死亡
•        ill-health retirements因病退休
•        early retirements早退
•        uses of disciplinary procedures使用纪律过程
•        grievances initiated提起申诉
•        suspensions停职
•        dismissals解雇
•        uses of private security firms to snoop on employees用私人安全公司。。员工
•        litigation including employment tribunals or legal action against employees
•        包括雇佣委员会在内的打官司,或,对员工实施的法律行为

  企业欺负行为是指雇主因为知道法律薄弱,工作稀缺而拥有特许虐待员工的情况,例如:

•        coercing employees to work 60/70/80 weeks on a regular basis then making life hell for (or dismissing) anyone who objects
经常强迫员工每周工作60/70/80个小时,然后,对反对的人让。。如地狱一般(或者解雇)
•        dismissing anyone who looks like having a stress breakdown as it's cheaper (in the UK) to pay the costs of unfair dismissal at Employment Tribunal (eg £50K maximum, but awards are usually paltry) than risk facing a personal injury claim for stress breakdown (eg £175K as in the John Walker case)
解雇任何看上去经历一次精神压力崩溃的人,因为(在英国)根据就业审理委员对不公平解雇上的宣判支付的费用(例如最高5万英镑,但是,回报通常杯水车薪)要比面临一次由于精神压力崩溃而对个人伤害的索赔价钱更低(例如,在John Walker一案中是17.5万英镑)
•        introduces "absence management" to deny employees annual or sick leave to which they are genuinely entitled
引入“缺勤管理”,以拒绝员工们真正有资格享有的年度假期或病假。
•        regularly snoops and spies on employees, eg by listening in to telephone conversations, using the mystery shopper, contacting customers behind employees backs and asking leading questions, conducting covert video surveillance (perhaps by fellow employees), sending personnel officers or private investigators to an employee's home to interrogate the employees whilst on sick leave, threatening employees with interrogation the moment they return from sick leave, etc.
经常秘密调查和侦查员工,例如,偷听电话谈话,采用神秘买家、背着雇员联系顾客并问引导式问题,进行隐蔽视频监视(可能是通过同事),当雇员休病假时,派人事人员或私人调查者前往雇员家中审问雇员,一旦休完病假后,用审问对员工进行威胁,等等。
•        deems any employee suffering from stress as weak and inadequate whilst aggressively ignoring and denying the cause of stress (bad management and bullying)
认为任何在工作中有压力的员工是软弱的,不足的,同时蛮横地忽视和否定造成精神压力的原因(糟糕的管理和欺负行为)
•        "encourages" employees (with promises of promotion and/or threats of disciplinary action) to fabricate complaints about their colleagues
(用承诺提拔与/或威胁采取纪律行动来)“鼓励”员工捏造对他们同事们的投诉。
•        employees are "encouraged" to give up full-time permanent positions in favour of short-term contracts; anyone who resists has their life made hell
员工受到“鼓励”去放弃全职永久职位,而选择短期合同,任何抵抗的人生活变得如同地狱一半。
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Post time 2010-1-12 09:15:59 |Display all floors
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Post time 2010-1-12 09:16:18 |Display all floors
Institutional bullying is similar to corporate bullying and arises when bullying becomes entrenched and accepted as part of the culture. People are moved, long-existing contracts are replaced with new short-term contracts on less favourable terms with the accompanying threat of "agree to this or else", workloads are increased, work schedules are changed, roles are changed, career progression paths are blocked or terminated, etc - and all of this is without consultation.

机构欺负和公司欺负类似,当欺负行为根深蒂固,并被接受成为文化的一部分是产生。人员被调动,现有合同被新的短期、有利程度降低的条款的合同取代,并伴随有:“要么答应,不然的话”,工作量被增加,工作日程安排被改变,角色被改变,职业进步道路被阻隔或终止等等 - 所有者些都没有商量。

Client bullying is where employees are bullied by those they serve, eg teachers are bullied (and often assaulted) by pupils and their parents, nurses are bullied by patients and their relatives, social workers are bullied by their clients, and shop/bank/building society staff are bullied by customers. Often the client is claiming their perceived right (eg to better service) in an abusive,  derogatory and often physically violent manner. Client bullying can also be employees bullying their clients.

客户欺负是当员工被那些他们的服务对象欺负,例如,老师被学生和家长的欺负(而且通常受到攻击);护士受到病人和他们的亲属欺负;社会工作者被他们的客户欺负;商店/银行/储蓄借贷协会员工被顾客欺负。通常,客户用一种虐待、贬低和往往身体暴力的方式来阐述自己感知中的权利(例如,获得更好服务)。客户欺负也可能是员工欺负他们的客户。

Serial bullying is where the source of all dysfunction can be traced to one individual, who picks on one employee after another and destroys them. This is the most common type of bullying I come across; most of this web site is devoted to describing and defining the serial bully, who exhibits the behavioural characteristics of a socialised psychopath. Most people know at least one person in their life with the profile of the serial bully; most people do not recognise this person as a socialised psychopath, or sociopath. I estimate one person in thirty is either  a physically-violent psychopath who commits criminal acts, or an antisocial whose behaviour is antisocial, or a sociopath who commits mostly non-arrestable offences. For an in-depth insight into serial bullying, click here.

连环欺负行为是指当一切不正常的源头都可以追述到一个人。此人一个接又一个地选中员工,然后毁灭他们。这是我碰到过最为常见的一种欺负行为类型;这个网站上的大部分内容用于描述和定义连环欺负者,他们所展现出社交化。。的行为特点。多数人在他们的生活中至少认识一位具有连环欺负者特征的人;多数人不将此人认为是一个。。;或者反社会指认。我估计三十个人中要么是一个具有身体暴力的,进行犯法行为的。。。;或者是一个具有反社会行为,的反社会者,,或者,是从事多数的时候,从事无法逮捕侵犯行为的。要深入了解连环欺负,点击这里。

Secondary bullying is mostly unwitting bullying which people start exhibiting when there's a serial bully in the department. The pressure of trying to deal with a dysfunctional, divisive and aggressive serial bully causes everyone's behaviour to decline.

二级别欺负行为在大部分的时候都没有觉察的欺负行为,当在部门内有一个连环欺负者时,人们开始表现出的行为。要应对一个不正常、分 裂 性、侵犯性的连环欺负者,所带来的压力引起每个人的行为水准下滑。

Pair bullying is a serial bully with a colleague. Often one does the talking whilst the other watches and listens. Usually it's the quiet one you need to watch. Usually they are of opposite gender and frequently there's an affair going on.

双人欺负行为是指一个连环欺负者连同一位同事。 通常,有一个人说话,同时,另一个人在观察,倾听。一般情况,你要小心的是那个安静的人。通常他们是异性,往往之间有一个绯闻。

Gang bullying is a serial bully with colleagues. Gangs can occur anywhere, but flourish in corporate bullying climates. If the bully is an extrovert, they are likely to be leading from the front; they may also be a shouter and screamer, and thus easily identifiable (and recordable on tape and video-able). If the bully is an introvert, that person will be in the background initiating the mayhem but probably not taking an active part, and may thus be harder to identify. A common tactic of this type of bully is to tell everybody a different story - usually about what others are alleged to have said about that person - and encourage each person to think they are the only one with the correct story. Introvert bullies are the most dangerous bullies.

  团伙欺负行为是指一个连环欺负者与多位同事。任何地方都可能存在团伙,而在企业欺负行为气候下会蓬勃发展。如果欺负者是外向的人,他们可能会带头在前。;他们还可能大吼大叫,尖叫,从而很容易辨认(并且可以记录在磁带或拍摄下来)。如果这位欺负者是内向的人,这个人将会在背后发动混乱,可或许不会扮演一个积极的部分,因此更难辨认。这个类型的欺负者普遍采取的手法是对不同人说不同的故事--通常是有关别人据说是对那人说过了什么话-并鼓励每个人相信他们是唯一拥有了正确故事的人。内向欺负者是最危险的欺负者。

Half the people in the gang are happy for the opportunity to behave badly, they gain gratification from the feeling of power and control, and enjoy the patronage, protection and reward from the serial bully. The other half of the gang are coerced into joining in, usually through fear of being the next target if they don't. If anything backfires, one of these coercees will be the scapegoat and sacrificial lamb on whom enraged targets will be encouraged to vent their anger. The serial bully watches from a safe distance. Serial bullies gain a great deal of gratification from encouraging and watching others engage in conflict, especially those who might otherwise pool negative information about them.

  团伙中有一半人对于有做坏事的机会而高兴,他们从权力感和控制感中获得满足,并且享受到了连环欺负者给与的屈尊、保护和奖励。团伙中另一半人是被迫参与其中,通常是担心如果不加入就会成为下一个目标。如果有什么东窗事发,在被逼迫者们中就会有一个人替背黑锅、替死鬼,感到十分愤怒的目标人将被鼓励去对他进行泄愤。连环欺负者隔着一个安全的距离进行观望。连环欺负者们从鼓励和观望别人发生冲突中获得巨大的满足感,尤其是那些本来可能。。对他们产生。。消极信息的人。

Gang bullying or group bullying is often called mobbing and usually involves scapegoating and victimisation.

  团伙欺负或群体欺负经常被称之为围攻,通常涉及找替罪羊、和受害人化。

Vicarious bullying is where two parties are encouraged to engage in adversarial interaction or conflict. Similar to gang bullying, although the bully may or may not be directly connected with either of the two parties. One party becomes the bully's instrument of harassment and is deceived and manipulated into bullying the other party. An example of vicarious bullying is where the serial bully creates conflict between employer and employee, participating occasionally to stoke the conflict, but rarely taking an active part in the conflict themselves.

间接欺负行为是指双方被鼓励参与到敌对的交往或或冲突中去。和团伙欺负行为类似,虽然欺负者也许和这两方任意一方都可能有或可能没有直接地有关系。有一方成为了欺负者骚扰的工具,受到欺骗和操纵来对另一方进行欺负。作为间接欺负的一个例子是当连环欺负者在雇主和员工之间制造矛盾,偶尔地参与,来对冲突煽风点火,但是可是极少他们自己积极地参与到冲突当中去。

Regulation bullying is where a serial bully forces their target to comply with rules, regulations, procedures or laws regardless of their appropriateness, applicability or necessity. Legal bullying - the bringing of a vexatious legal action to control and punish a person - is one of the nastiest forms of bullying.

管制欺负行为是指当一位连环欺负者强迫他们的目标人服从规定、条例、流程或法律,而不顾它们的恰当性、可适用性或者是必要性。法律欺负行为 - 采取一种烦人的法律行动来控制并惩罚一个人 - 是最肮脏的欺负行为形式之一。

Residual bullying is the bullying of all kinds that continues after the serial bully has left. Like recruits like and like promotes like, therefore the serial bully bequeaths a dysfunctional environment to those who are left. This can last for years.

残余欺负行为是指当连环欺负者离开后继续存在的所有类型的欺负行为。什么样的人就会招什么样人;什么的人就会提拔什么样的人。因此,欺负者为留下的人们遗留下的是一个不正常的环境。这可能存在数年。

Cyber bullying is the misuse of email systems or Internet forums etc for sending aggressive flame mails. Serial bullies have few communication skills (and often none), thus the impersonal nature of email makes it an ideal tool for causing conflict. Sometimes called cyberstalking.

网络欺负行为是指对电子邮件系统或国际互联网论坛等等进行滥用,来发送侵犯的。。电子邮件。连环欺负者们拥有很少的交流技能(而且经常是没有),因此电子邮件的非人性化的特点使之成为了引发冲突的一个理想工具。有时候称之为网络跟踪。

In environments where bullying is the norm, most people will eventually either become bullies or become targets. There are few bystanders, as most people will eventually be sucked in. It's about survival: you either adopt bullying tactics yourself and thus survive by not becoming a target, or you stand up against bullying and refuse to join in, in which case you are bullied, harassed, victimized and scapegoated until your health is so severely impaired that you have a stress breakdown (this is a psychiatric injury, not a mental illness - see health page for details on stress, or the PTSD page for details on psychiatric injury), take ill-health retirement, leave, find yourself unexpectedly selected for redundancy, or are unfairly dismissed.

  在欺负行为成为标准情景的环境下,多数人最终要们成为欺负者,要么成为目标人。很少有旁观者,因为大多数人会最终被吸入其中。这就是生存:你要么自己采纳欺负行为的手段,从而通过不成为一名欺负目标人生存下来,要么你挺身反对欺负行为,拒绝加入,这时候,你会被欺负、骚扰、成为受害者和替罪羊,直到你的健康严重衰退,以至于你经历了一次精神压力崩溃(这是一个心理伤害,不是一种精神疾病 - 参见健康网页获取有关精神压力的详细内容,或者PSTD网站获取精神伤害的详细内容),因病退休、请假,发现这及意料之外地被选中冗员裁减,或受不公平地解雇。
Happy 牛 Year~!

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