Author: xiaolifeidao

Hemudu (河姆渡) Culture Forced on Move by Flood [Copy link] 中文

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Post time 2005-7-4 23:44:56 |Display all floors

The oldest music instrument in the world :)

Xun(埙) is an egg-shaped, hollow clay instrument with a blowhole at either end and six or seven fingerholes, and is also one of the most ancient Chinese instruments, appearing as early as 5000 BC. It has an unusually haunting tonal quality but a range of only one octave. After more than a thousand years of neglect, xun-playing was revived in China in the 1980s, and the xun is now occasionally used to express mournful or sorrowful feelings in a piece of orchestral music. Xun is one of the 29 instruments recorded in Shijing(Poem,诗经), the first collection of folk musics in China. Xun playing is dubbed "the most age-old civilization of music history".

The oldest Xun found so far is in Hemudu, which boasts a history of more than 7000 years :)

I want to upload a picture of this oldest Xun, but I don't know how to do it (

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Post time 2005-7-4 23:53:56 |Display all floors

Thank you sista teressa for an infomative, educational piece !!

The pic upload button in FLR has been on and off.

Just wait for a few days, and the button will reappear.

Or you can leave a link to the picture you want to show us.

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Post time 2005-7-5 12:13:33 |Display all floors

More info

Background info

The Hemudu Culture, a culture formed in early Chinese Neolithic Age (7,000 to 8,000 years ago ), was discovered in Hemudu Village of Yuyao County, Zhejiang Province in 1973. The absolute period of the culture lasted form 5200 BC to 4500 BC. Houses at that time were made of wood in rod-railing type: rows of square wood and board piles were driver, on which keel plates and floor boards were put on.Using this as a base, pillars were then erected, and a roof was set on top of the pillars. Structures of tenons and mortises were found in the houses construction, and there were tongue-and-groove joints among the floor boards, representing a high level of carpentry.

Meanwhile, a large number of rice husks, carbonized grains and rice straw ashes, together with the winnowing spade made of buffalo's scapula evacuated in the Hemudu Culture site show that rice planting at that time boasted of a considerable scale. The main domestic animals included buffaloes and pigs.

The stone artifacts, including axes, adzes and chippers, made during the Hemudu Culture period were rather rough, and there were quite a few of bone and wooden objects. The wooden oars, for example, were found in the ruins, showing that there was water transportation at that time .

The carbon-contained black pottery was the representative of the Hemudu pottery. With a round bottom, the pottery included cauldrons, pots, basins, earthen bowls and gridirons. Cauldrons and gridirons were the main cooking utensils. The decorative patterns on the surface of rope, seal and scratching. Some of them contains geometric figures, others were descriptive drawings, depicting swimming fish, fat pigs and ripe rice. Also found in the ruins were some color pottery. In fact they were black pottery covered with a gray clothing, and decorated with dark black designs.

In 1982, the State Council enlisted the Hemudu Culture Relics as one of the key culture relics under State protection, and in 1993, the Hemudu Culture Relics Museum was founded.

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Post time 2005-7-5 16:14:01 |Display all floors

河姆渡遗址博物馆

 河姆渡遗址博物馆由文物陈列馆和遗址公园两大部分组成。 文物陈列馆紧邻遗址西侧, 占地面积16000平方米,主体建筑面积3200平方米,由6幢建筑组成,单体之间用连廊相接。建筑造型根据河姆渡7000年前“干栏式”建筑风格,“长脊、短檐、高床”的特点而设计,依托456根桩基, 构筑出高于地面的架空层。人字形坡屋面上耸起5-7组交错构件,象征着7000年前榫卯木作技术,再配以土红色波纹陶瓦、炒米黄毛面墙砖,显得古朴、野趣,并与河姆渡文化融为一体。序厅屋面形似展翅翱翔的鲲鹏,表现了河姆渡先民爱鸟、崇鸟的文化习俗。   

  博物馆基本陈列有3个展厅,第一展厅陈列出土文物400余件,辅以照片、图表、模型,介绍了遗址的基本情况。 引人注目的是一个面积为100平方米的“七千年前河姆渡生态环境”大模型,在声、光、电的自动控制下,形象地再现了7000年前河姆渡先民过着定居生活,从事农业、狩猎等生产、生活场景,维妙维肖,栩栩如生。

  遗址中出土的大量动物骨骼, 经鉴定属于61个动物种属。从陈列的鸟类、鱼类、爬行类及哺乳类的骨骼残片,展示了昔日的河姆渡是古林参天,水草茂密,虎吟象吼,鱼跃雁飞,一派生机盎然的动物世界,堪称7000年前的古动物王国。

  第二展厅“稻作经济”,反映稻作农业及渔猎采集活动,展出的实物有7000年前的人工栽培稻谷及照片,稻谷芒刺清晰,颗粒饱满,令人叹为观止。此外展出的还有骨耜、木杵和石磨盘、石球等稻作经济的全套耕作、加工工具。 带炭化饭粒的陶片和以夹炭黑陶为主的釜、钵、盘、豆、盆、罐、盉 、鼎、盂等炊、饮、贮器,说明早在7000年前我们东方民族的饮食习惯已基本形成,种植水稻是河姆渡人的重要经济活动,他们的饮食文化已很丰富了。

  河姆渡先民发明了农业以后,生活状况有了根本改变,但还是不能满足他们的生活需要,从陈列的骨哨、骨箭头、弹丸等渔猎工具、酸枣、橡子、芡实、菱角等丰富的果实来看,证明渔猎和采集仍是河姆渡人不可缺少的经济活动。
第三展厅反映河姆渡人“定居生活”和“原始艺术”两个内容。陈列着被称为是建筑史上奇迹的带有榫卯的干栏式建筑木构件和加工工具。此外,陈列的还有种类繁多的纺织工具,展示了当时成熟的纺织技术。
  在生产和生活领域里创造了许许多多奇迹的河姆渡人,以其精湛的雕刻工艺,生动逼真的陶塑,优美的刻划装饰与绚丽的绘画,创造了辉煌的原始艺术,展现了河姆渡先民丰富多彩的精神生活。他们以象牙、骨、玉、石、陶、木为载体,通过琢磨、刻划、捏塑、绘画等艺术手段,给我们留下了许多构思奇巧、寓意深远的艺术作品,那种讲究对称、追求平衡的审美意识和整齐、稳重、沉静的艺术作品,令人赞叹不已。展出的众多艺术品中,尤以象牙雕刻件最为珍贵,其中就有作为遗址标志的“双鸟朝阳”蝶形器。

  河姆渡先民以其勤劳的双手,非凡的智慧,创造出光辉灿烂的原始文明,证明了滚滚东流的长江也是中华民族文化的发祥地, 长江和黄河一样,都是孕育我们民族的母亲河,都是哺育中华古文明的摇篮。河姆渡遗址的发现, 被学术界公认是中国最重要的考古发现之一,同类型的文化被命名为“河姆渡文化”,1982年公布为全国重点文物保护单位。

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Post time 2005-7-7 12:28:18 |Display all floors

Thank you loveseneca

Great informative post !!

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Post time 2005-7-11 18:15:19 |Display all floors

兴于水也衰于水 专家破解河姆渡文化兴衰之谜

本报讯1973年发掘的河姆渡遗址,把中国的文明史往前推进了2000年。河姆渡先民为什么能在此繁衍生息?光辉灿烂的河姆渡文化为什么在延续了2000年后逐渐消失?日前,邵九华、夏梦河和邵尧明三位学者的《河姆渡文化与水环境关系的研究》课题,通过了由浙江省和宁波市专家组成的评审委员会评审,从而使河姆渡文化兴衰的千古之谜终于得以破解。

  河姆渡遗址位于浙江省余姚市姚江之畔。河姆渡遗址第四层以下为深达10余米的青灰色淤泥层,经检测发现有大量的海相微生物,证明河姆渡地区曾经是人类难以定居的浅海。1999年春,中国博物馆学会会员、河姆渡博物馆原馆长邵九华与余姚市水利局总工程师夏梦河、余姚市规划局高级工程师邵尧明一道,组成了《河姆渡文化兴衰与水环境关系的研究》课题小组。三人通过卫星遥感技术成果,发现河姆渡的地貌原来是一个天然的“工”字形结构。这一结构与沿海地区人民为促淤围涂,筑丁坝、顺坝的“工”字结构相似。正是由于这种特殊的地貌特征,造成河姆渡地区不断淤积,加上宁(波)绍(兴)平原只有这样一个“工”形地貌,从而使它在全新世海退初期最先变成陆地,成为原始人群的定居地。

  但是,全新世海退结束后形成的杭州湾喇叭口地形,使姚江平原的水流北排不畅,洪涝成灾,造成沟头冲刷。在特大洪水的切割下,“工”字形高地终于被冲出一个大缺口,姚江完成了改道东流的剧变,这时海水沿河道上溯,河姆渡变成一片水乡泽国,环境严重恶化,先民们不得不背井离乡,河姆渡文化最终在这里消失。

  评委会主任、浙江省河口研究所熊兆隆教授和评委会副主任、浙江省文物考古研究所原所长刘军研究员对此项成果给予了高度评价,称这是河姆渡文化研究领域最全面、最完整、最有说服力的研究成果。

  去年11月12日,由南京大学完成的河姆渡遗址微古、孢粉检测报告也印证了邵九华等3位学者的这一结论。

  河姆渡文化兴衰史警示我们:人与自然必须和谐相处,发展经济不能以破坏环境为代价。(徐锦庚)

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Post time 2005-7-13 19:23:06 |Display all floors

knowhoyouare

Thank you for an enlightening contribution !!!

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