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私房菜 [Copy link] 中文

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Post time 2019-1-22 06:33:31 |Display all floors
私房菜

   不知何时开始,人们对酒楼食肆的喧嚣变得有些厌倦了,热爱美食者钻进横街窄巷,寻找美味佳肴,还有那份流失已久的恬淡心情。他们所寻找的就是现在街道上不时可见的“私房菜”。

所谓“私房菜”,也叫“私家菜”,就是在私密的自家厨房里烹制而成、无所谓菜系,无所谓章法,只要别家没有,只要味道独特即可。一个世纪前,北京曾盛行一句话:“曲界无腔不学谭——谭鑫培,食界无口不夸谭——谭家菜。”,这说的就是著名的私房菜“谭家菜”。当时,许多头面人物都以能品尝到翰林谭宗浚家的菜为荣,可能这就是私房菜最早的根源吧。

后来,香港、广州、上海、北京等地都出现了一些私房菜馆,虽然数量不一、良莠不齐,却也渐渐成了气候,受到很多人的追捧。的确,“私房”两个字本身就包含了太多的隐秘,太多的诱惑和太多的期待。

“私房菜”如何翻译呢?众多的汉英词典中只有《汉英词典》(第3版)收录了该词,其译文为family cuisine。该译文应该说是正确的,譬如,上面提高的享有盛誉的“谭家私房菜”就通常译为The Tan Family Cuisine。当然,family cuisine这个词本身还有不同的译法,譬如,在日本通常译为“家庭料理”。

除了family cuisine这个说法外,“私房菜”还有没有其他的译文呢?笔者发现,还有以下几个常用的译文可供选择。

1. private kitchen cuisine或speakeasy cuisine。这种说法最早起源于香港,由于香港高额的房租等原因,有些饭店就开始开辟所谓的private kitchen说speakeasy,为客人提供quality home-made food and drinks,而更重要的则是这些餐馆往往试图营造一种“家”的氛围。Wikipedia也收录了speakeasy这个词,请看其释义和阐述:

Speakeasy, also termed private kitchen in Hong Kong (Chinese: 私房菜), is a term in modern Hong Kong referring to an unlicensed, restaurant-like establishment for eating. Some of the perceived problems with running a restaurant in Hong Kong—high rents and the common practice of landlords extracting profits from restaurants through clauses in tenancy agreements—have led to the establishment of this type of eatery.

A typical speakeasy will be based in an ordinary apartment in a block of flats. Customers gain access by ringing the bell before the door is opened from the inside. Inside, the flat will be set out as a simple restaurant. Usually, it provides not only quality home-made food and drink, but a sense of being at home. Advertising is usually by word of mouth—it's often not possible to have prominent signs outside to advertise the business' presence, as with a normal commercial establishment. Some speakeasies make it compulsory for patrons to phone ahead first to book.

从上面的解释我们可以知道,所谓的speakeasy和private kitchen应该是“私房菜馆”的意思,而私房菜则为private kitchen cuisine或speakeasy cuisine。譬如下文:

Speakeasy cuisine is guided by word-of-mouth; diners flock to unlicensed restaurants for good food at bargain-basement prices.

另外,也有些地方,如Virtual China网站,认为“private kitchen”就是“私房菜”的意思,例如,它给该词给出如下的释义:

“Private kitchen” = 私房菜 = home-cooked or super-traditional meals that are fixed course depending on the day and the restaurant is usually set in a small apartment upstairs; was all the rage in Hong Kong some years ago.

然而,笔者的调查发现,private kitchen本身还是没有“菜”的意思,而将该词译为“菜”,实属翻译中的变通,例如新知台由肥妈玛利亚主持的一档综艺饮食节目《肥妈私房菜》的英文就是Maria’s Kitchen,但实际上这里还是指Maria在Kitchen中做的dishes,而kitchen这里似乎是一个借喻的用法。

2. private home cuisine:这个译文目前用得很多,譬如Shanghai Daily等英文媒体都用该词。中国日报“英语点津”栏目中则如是说:

“私房菜”的历史,可以追溯到清末光绪年间。据说祖籍广东的世家子弟谭瑑青,祖父辈都当官并好饮好食,其父谭宗浚把家乡粤菜混合京菜成谭家菜声震北京。后来家道中落,谭瑑青坐食山空,便由家厨或妻妾做拿手的谭家“私房菜”帮补家计,宴设家中,每晚三席,须提前三天预订,最盛时订位要等一个月。

Sifangcai or “private home cuisine” has become a fad in many large cities around the country. 在如今的大城市里,私房菜已经成为一种时尚了。

It’s a kind of home catering that features traditional family recipes in a setting just like home.私房菜馆一般是开在住宅中,以厨师传统秘制手艺为招牌。

近年来,随着人们生活水平的大幅度提高,人们对饮食更为关注,希望吃的健康,吃的美味。除了上面提到的“私房菜”或“私家菜”外,还出现了一些列的“菜”,如“招牌菜”、“特色菜”、“农家菜”、“创新菜”等等。下面再看看这些各色“菜肴”的翻译。

“招牌菜”一般译为signature dish或house special或house specialty dishes,但需要注意的是signature dish可不用随便使用,一般所谓的signature dish都是在那些较为高档的饭馆出现,食者单凭品味,就能知道制作该菜肴的厨师(通常名气较大)的姓名。请看下面Wikipedia对该词的释义:

A signature dish is a recipe that identifies an individual chef. Ideally it should be unique and allow an informed gastronome to name the chef in a blind tasting. It can be thought of as the culinary equivalent of an artist finding their own style, or an author finding their own voice.

“特色菜”的译文为chef’s specials或special cuisine或有时直接用special或specialty。例如:

Thursday's special was steak. 星期四的特色菜是牛排。

What's special for tonight? 今晚有什么特色菜?

Today's special/Today's specialties 今日特色菜

What's today's special? 今天的特色菜是什么?

This is Beijing's special. 这是北京的特色菜。

   “农家菜”的译文则为farmer’s dishes或famer’s cuisine。而“创新菜”则一般直接译为innovations,如“红房子的创新菜”便为the innovations of the Red House Restaurant。


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Post time 2019-2-24 13:24:00 |Display all floors
Laowai do not care so much, they only eat sandwich and coffee

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