Author: Perfumecity

People Without a Country: The Gypsies   [Copy link] 中文

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13. In the 800 years that the Romani have been present in Europe, many have given in to the temptation to settle down and live more sedentary lives. As early as the 1360s, land was being granted to Romani who were willing to settle on Corfu. (Source: Wikipedia)

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14. This didn't always work out well. The first recorded Gypsy slave auction took place in Wallachia, in the late 14th century. This poster, advertising another auction, is from 500 years later. (Source: Magicienii)

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15. Those who did settle down found themselves in direct competition with their neighbors' farms. (Source: Fotóművészet)

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16. Unsurprisingly, merchants and selling agents often colluded to pay Romani farmers less than their ethnic-majority neighbors, and property rights were unstable and easily revoked, leading to the kind of poverty that doesn't let go for centuries. (Source: Truomega)

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17. A Romani mother with her children. (Source: Human Photography)

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18. A Gypsy slum in Belgrade. (Source: Wordpress)

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Very colourful

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19. (Source: Thestival)

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20. To make ends meet, or just to manage the financial death-spiral, many European Gypsies took to putting on traveling shows and spectacle-oriented gimmicks for the money bored townspeople would pay to be entertained in the long, dark centuries before the invention of TV. Soon, Gypsy communities had gained a reputation for being hotbeds of fortune-telling, kidnapping, and thievery. (Source: Lviv)

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21. The persecution began early, and it was a rare part of Europe that didn't enforce anti-Gypsy laws with extreme harshness. The Gypsies who reached Western Europe in the 15th century were mostly refugees from Ottoman persecution, but local populations in Germany and France assumed they were spies for the Turks. In the mid-18th century, the Spanish government rounded up the Romani and deported able-bodied men to forced labor camps. Around the same time, Austria outlawed the ownership of wagons and the speaking of the Romani language. Punishment for noncompliance ranged from whipping to death. (Source: Databus)

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22. Unlike the Jewish pogroms, persecution of the Gypsies usually had no religious angle. By far, the majority of Gypsies in Catholic countries follow the Catholic faith, as is the case with this group, shown during a pilgrimage. In Orthodox countries, they follow the Orthodox Church. The same pattern can be seen in majority-Muslim countries, and even among Anglican and Pentecostal communities in England and Portugal, respectively. With Gypsies, the suppression and expulsion orders were pure ethnic cleansing. (Source: Wikipedia)

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23. As early as 1510, Swiss law imposed death on any Gypsy found within the country's borders. From 1554, the rule was applied to England. Another order of death was issued in Denmark in 1589. In 1538, Portugal began a series of deportations to Bahia, Brazil, and other overseas possessions, where the Inquisition often followed the hapless Gypsies. In 1880, Argentina became the first New World country to block further immigration. In 1885, the United States followed suit. In 1896, Norway passed a law authorizing the forced removal of Gypsy children. Perhaps 1,500 children were taken under this law and raised in orphanages. In the above picture, soldiers arrest Romani men in occupied Yugoslavia. (Source: Wikimedia)

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24. In this picture, taken in 1940, the Romani of Asperg, Germany are held awaiting deportation. The 1935 Nuremburg Laws had dealt with Germany's Gypsies on much the same terms as the Jews. Eventually, facing the extreme difficulty of arresting itinerant travelers, the Wehrmacht and SS adopted a shoot-on-sight policy for Eastern Europe's Romani. (Source: Wikipedia)

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