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The Tiger by William Blake 诗歌鉴赏 [Copy link] 中文

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Post time 2013-11-27 16:28:03 |Display all floors
This post was edited by liu5222512 at 2013-11-27 16:29

The Tiger

by William Blake (1757-1827)


Tiger! Tiger! burning bright

In the forests of the night,

What immortal hand or eye

Could frame thy fearful symmetry?


In what distant deeps or skies

Burnt the fire of thine eyes?

On what wings dare he aspire?

What the hand dare seize the fire?



And what shoulder, and what art,

Could twist the sinews of thy heart?

And when thy heart began to beat,

What dread hand? and what dread feet?


What the hammer? what the chain?

In what furnace was thy brain?

What the anvil? what dread grasp

Dare its deadly terrors clasp?



When the stars threw down their spears,

And watered heaven with their tears,

Did he smile his work to see?

Did he who made the Lamb make thee?


Tiger! Tiger! burning bright

In the forests of the night,

What immortal hand or eye

Dare frame thy fearful symmetry?

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Post time 2013-11-27 16:32:18 |Display all floors
This post was edited by liu5222512 at 2013-11-28 21:31

Did he who made the Lamb make thee?

Who made the Lamb是后置定语从句修辞he

所以这个句子中,第一个用了made,因为有助动词did所以后面必须用动词原形make


1 What the anvil? what dread grasp

    Dare its deadly terrors clasp?

2  Did he smile his work to see?


If not for rhyme,the normal word order should be:

1  What dread grasp dare clasp its deadly terrors?

2  Did he smile to see his work?


Notes:
1)frame: create;
2)distant deeps and skies: an allusion for heaven and hell;
3)he: God;
4)aspire: (archaic) to rise up; soar
5)“On what wings dare he aspire?”: could refer to Icarus. Icarus created wings so that he could fly free of a labrynth.
      希腊神话中的伊卡洛斯
6)dare seize the fire: could refer to Prometheus
7)hammer, chain, furnace, anvil:
     希腊神话中的火神赫菲斯托斯(Hephaestus)常用的工具。
8)  What dread hand?   dread=dreadful

Generally speaking,the rhyme scheme is AABB in this verse.
[单数]主格thou;             所有格 thy 或 thine;       宾格thee;
[复数]主格 you 或 ye;       所有格 your 或 yours;      宾格 you 或 ye
[古语、诗歌用语]汝,尔,你

Lyric in its powerful ambiguity approaches absolute art in poetry and stubbornly resists critical attempts to explain its meaning.

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Post time 2013-11-28 11:53:53 |Display all floors
This post was edited by liu5222512 at 2013-11-28 21:33

In the first two stanzas give examples of alliteration.

Meaning of the poem
Stanza 1:What immortal being created this terrifying creature,with its perfect proportions(symmetry),is an awesome kiliing machine?

Stanza 2:Was it created in hell(distant deeps) or in heaven(skies)?If the creator had wings,how could he get so close to the fire in which the tiger was created?How could he with so blazing a fire?

Stanza 3:What strength(Shoulder) and craftsmanship(art) could make the tiger’s heart?What being could then stand before it(feet) and shpape it further (hand)?

Stanza 4:What kind of tool(hammer)did he use to fashion the tiger in the forge fire?What about the chain connected to the pedal which the maker used to pump the bellows?What of the heat in the furnace and the anvil on which the maker hammered out his creation?How did the maker muster the courage to grasp the tiger?

Stanza 5:When the stars cast their light on the new being and the clouds cried,was the maker pleased with his creation?

Stanza 6:The poet repeats the central question of the poem,stated in Stanza 1.However,he changes could (Line 4)to dare(Line 24).This is a significant change,for the poet is no longer asking who had the capability of creating the tiger but who dared to create so frightful a creature.

Theme
“TheTiger,”by William Blake(1757-1827),presents a question that embodies the theme:Who created the tiger?Was it the kind and loving God who made the lamb?Or was it Satan?Blake presents his question in Lines3 and 4: What immortal hand or eye Could frame thy fearful symmetry?
Blake realizes,of course,that God made all the creatures on earth.However,to express his bewilderment that the God who created the gentle lamb also created the terrifying tiger,he includes Satan as a possible creator while raising his rhetorical questions,notably the one he asks in Lines5 and 6: In what distant deeps or skies Burnt the fire of thy eyes? Deeps appears to refer to hell and skies to heaven.In either case,there would befire—the fire of hell or the fire of the stars. .......Of course,there can be no gain saying that the tiger symbolizes evil,or the incarnation of evil,and that the lamb (Line20) represents goodness,or Christ.Blake's inquiry is a variation on an old philosophical and theological question:Why does evil exist in an universe created and ruled by a benevolent God? Blake provides no answer.His mission is to reflect reality in arresting images.A poet’s first purpose,after all,is to present the world and its denizens in language that stimulates the aesthetic sense;he is not to exhort or moralize.Nevertheless,the poem does stir the reader to deep thought.Here is the tiger,fierce and brutal in its quest for sustenance;there is the lamb,meek and gentle in its quest for survival.Is it possible that the same God who made the lamb also made the tiger?Or was the tiger the devil's work?

Meter
The poem is in trochaic tetrameter with catalexis at the end of each line.Here is an explanation of these technical terms: Tetrameter Line:a poetry line usually with eight syllables but some times seven.Trochaic Foot:A pair of syllables—a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable. Catalexis(欠(音)节):The absence of a syllable in the final foot in a line.In Blake’spoem,an unstressed syllable is absent in the last foot of each line.Thus,every line has seven syllables,not the conventional eight. The following illustration using the first two lines of the poem demonstrates tetrameter with four trochaic feet,the last one catalectic:
1     2     3       4
Tiger,tiger,burning bright
1     2     3       4
In the forests of the night

Notice that the fourth foot in each line eliminates the conventional unstressed syllable(catalexis).However,this irregularity in the trochaic pattern does not harm the rhythm of the poem.In fact,it may actually enhance it,allowing each line to end with an accented syllable that seems to mimic the beat of the maker’s hammer on the anvil.For a detailed discussion of meter and the various types of feet.

Structure and Rhyme Scheme
The poem consists of six quatrains.(A quatrain is a four-lines tanza.)Each quatrain contains two couplets.(A couplet is a pair of rhyming lines).Thus we have a 24-line poem with 12 couplets and 6 stanzas–a neat,balanced package.The question in the final stanza repeats(exceptforoneword,dare)the wording of the first stanza,perhaps suggesting that the question Blake raises will continue to perplex thinkers ad infinitum.

Figures of Speech and Allusions
Paradox:If the maker of the tiger also made the lamb.
Metaphor:Comparison of the tiger to a fire.
Anaphora:Repetition of what at the beginning of sentences or clauses.Example:What dread hand and what dread feet?/What the hammer?what the chain?clauses.Example:What dread hand and what dread feet?/What the hammer?what the chain?
Allusion:Immortal hand or eye:God or Satan
Allusion:  Distant deeps or skies:hell or heaven

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Post time 2013-11-28 12:25:43 |Display all floors
老虎

老虎!老虎!灼灼烁光,
似暗夜林间火焰的莹煌,
能是什么样的仙手和天眼,
造就你可畏而匀称的曲线?

在哪个遥远的深渊或天堂,
能有如你双眼的熊熊火光?
天神乘什么翅膀翱翔九天?
什么铁掌才敢擒住这火焰?

怎样的臂力,怎样的技艺,
搓拧出你心脏强健的心肌?
而一旦你的心脏开始搏动,
那是何等的利爪令人生恐?

怎样锤打,什么样的铁链?
怎样的熔炉将你大脑锤炼?
怎样的铁钻,怎样的铁腕,
胆敢钳住你这等恶煞凶神?

待当繁星投下了银光长矛,
用它们的泪水把天堂灌浇,
他会为自己的杰作而微笑?
你和羔羊是同一上帝缔造?

老虎!老虎!灼灼烁光,
似暗夜林间火焰的莹煌,
能是什么样的仙手和天眼,
敢造你可畏而匀称的曲线?

“诗歌以其强大的不可明确性而向纯艺术靠近,并顽固地抵抗着各种对其含义进行评论的企图。”

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