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Sonnet: London,1802 —by William Wordsworth 诗歌鉴赏 [Copy link] 中文

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Post time 2013-11-15 20:02:13 |Display all floors
This post was edited by liu5222512 at 2014-7-22 09:29

               Sonnet:   London,1802


A  Milton!thou shouldest be living at this hour:

B  England hath need of thee:she is a fen

B  Of stagnant waters:altar,sword,and pen,

A  Fireside,the heroic wealth of hall and bower,



A  Have forfeited their ancient English dower

B  Of inward happiness.We are selfish men;

B  Oh!raise us up,return to us again;

A  And give us manners,virtue,freedom,power.


C  Thy soul was like a Star,and dwelt apart:

D  Thou hadst a voice whose sound was like the sea:

D  Pure as the naked heavens,majestic,free,



E  So didst thou travel on life's common way,

C  In cheerful godliness;and yet thy heart

E  The lowliest duties on herself did lay.

"London,1802" is a Italian (or Petrarchan) Sonnet (i.e. the rhyme is iambic pentameter,with a rhyme scheme of ABBA ABBA CDD ECE.

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Post time 2013-11-15 20:04:11 |Display all floors
This post was edited by liu5222512 at 2013-11-17 14:50

[单数]主格thou;             所有格 thy 或 thine;       宾格thee;
[复数]主格 you 或 ye;     所有格 your 或 yours;      宾格 you 或 ye
[古语、诗歌用语]汝,尔,你
shouldest  古英语第二人称单数后加-st或-est
Hath         与第三人称单数连用,相当于现代英语的has。
fen           [英国英语]沼泽;泥泞地
altar          圣坛,祭坛,祭台
                 祈祷祭拜的地方
fireside       炉边;家庭
bower        [古语](尤指中世纪城堡中的贵妇人的)卧室,闺房
forfeit        丧失(权利、名誉、生命等)
dower        【法律】(寡妇应得的)亡夫遗产,
                  [古语、诗歌用语]嫁妆;彩礼 (=dowry)
majestic     庄严的,威严的;雄伟的;壮丽的;
godliness    虔诚

弥尔顿!你该活在这个时候,
英国需要你!她成了死水一潭:
教会,朝廷,武将,文官,
庙堂上的英雄,宅第里的公侯,

都把英国的古风抛丢,
失了内心的乐。我们何等贪婪!
啊,回来吧,快把我们扶持,
给我们良心,美德,自由,力量!

你的灵魂是独立的明星,
你的声音如大海的波涛,
你纯洁如天空,奔放,崇高,

你走在人生大道上,面对上帝,
虔诚而愉快,还有一颗赤心
愿将最卑微的职责担起。

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Post time 2014-7-22 09:43:34 |Display all floors
Structure and synopsis
Wordsworth begins the poem by wishing that Milton were still alive, for "England hath need of thee." This is because it is his opinion that England has stagnated morally by comparison to Milton's period.
To this end, Wordsworth pleads for Milton to rather messianically "raise us up, return to us again; / And give us manners, virtue, freedom, power."
In the six subsequent lines (the sestet) following the first eight lines (the octave), Wordsworth explains why Milton could improve the English condition. Milton's soul, he explains, was as bright and noble as a star and "dwelt apart" from the crowd, not feeling the urge to conform to norms.
Milton's voice resembled "the sea", "pure as the naked heavens, majestic, free". Furthermore, Milton never disdained the ordinary nature of life, but instead "travel[ed] on life's common way", remaining happy, pure (cheerful godliness), and humble (taking the "lowliest duties" on himself).
"London, 1802" reveals both Wordsworth's moralism and his growing conservatism. Wordsworth frequently sought to "communicate natural morality to his readers" through his poetry.
In this sonnet, he urges morality and selflessness to his readers, criticising the English for being stagnant and selfish, for lacking "manners, virtue, [and] freedom." But he also refers to "inward happiness" as a natural English right, or "dower," and asks Milton to bestow "power" as well as virtue on the English.
These are among Wordsworth's "few explicitly nationalistic verses—shades, perhaps, of the conservatism that took hold in his old age."
While it is common, and perhaps correct, to equate nationalism with conservatism in the modern era, it is hard to suggest that nationalism functioned that way in the Romantic context.
The kind of nationalism Wordsworth proposed in the poem had something of a revolutionary nature to it.
Wordsworth himself implies in a footnote to the poem that it could be read in such a manner, "written immediately after my return from France to London, when I could not but be struck, as here described, with the vanity and parade of our own country . . . as contrasted with the quiet, and I may say the desolation, that the revolution had produced in France."
The moralism and nationalism of the poem occur simultaneously with and perhaps are the occasion for a call to overthrow the current social and political order, as had recently been done in France.
Whether or not Wordsworth wanted the poem to be interpreted in such a way can and is called into question later in his note.
Themes include morality, humanity, nature/the natural environment. then tells Milton that his "soul was like a Star," because he was different even from his contemporaries in terms of the virtues listed above.
The speaker tells Milton that his voice was like the sea and the sky, a part of nature and therefore natural: "majestic, free."
The speaker also compliments Milton's ability to embody "cheerful godliness" even while doing the "lowliest duties." As stated above the speaker on several instances refers to Milton as a celestial being.

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Post time 2014-7-22 09:43:50 |Display all floors
Analysis
"London, 1802" is a sonnet with a rhyme scheme of abbaabbacddece.
The poem is written in the second person and addresses the late poet John Milton, who lived from 1608–1674 and is most famous for having written Paradise Lost.
The poem has two main purposes, one of which is to pay homage to Milton by saying that he can save the entirety of England with his nobility and virtue.
The other purpose of the poem is to draw attention to what Wordsworth feels are the problems with English society.
According to Wordsworth, England was once a great place of happiness, religion, chivalry, art, and literature, but at the present moment those virtues have been lost.
Wordsworth can only describe modern England as a swampland, where people are selfish and must be taught about things like "manners, virtue, freedom, power."
Notice that Wordsworth compliments Milton by comparing him to things found in nature, such as the stars, the sea, and "the heavens." For Wordsworth, being likened to nature is the highest compliment possible.

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