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柬埔寨的汉语热升温 [Copy link] 中文

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Post time 2013-6-3 20:41:23 |Display all floors
For ambitious young Cambodians, Chinese is becoming the obvious second language to master

对于有志的柬埔寨年轻人而言,汉语正成为需要掌握的第二语言。



When 20-year-old Suon Chiva was choosing a language to complement his native Khmer, it didn’t take him long to decide. He saw where the products in his local markets were made and where the new investments in his country were coming from. Learning to speak Chinese, he decided, made the most sense.

当20岁的Suon Chiva准备选择一门语言来辅助母语高棉语时,做决定并没有花费他太长的时间。他看到了当地市场上商品的产地,以及这个国家外资的来源地。他决定学习汉语,这是最合理的。

“Cambodia now has a lot of business people coming here from China,” Chiva says. “They’re investing a lot of money. So it’s very important to speak their language.”

“柬埔寨现在有很多来自中国的商人,”Chiva说,“他们投资了很多钱,所以能说他们的语言是很重要的。”

It’s a view shared by most here in a stuffy classroom in Phnom Penh. Chiva and a dozen other students sit on wooden benches, whirling fans pushing warm air around the room, as their young teacher runs through a lesson on Mandarin tones.

在金边一间闷热的教室里,这是一个普遍的意见。 Chiva和他的同学坐在木制长凳上,风扇在教室里旋转,而他们年轻的老师正在用国语授课。

The school is one of several that have popped up on the same busy road in the Cambodian capital in recent years. Brightly coloured signs splayed with Chinese script tower above the traffic. Inside, the aging building is a warren of interconnected classrooms. Out front, employees in matching shirts hand out brochures for part-time classes, or sell textbooks to the students who dart in and out.

这所学校是最近几年在柬埔寨首都一条繁忙道路边,出现的几所学校中的一所。在车流上方,是用汉语书写的光鲜的标志。里边,老旧的建筑里到处是挨着的教室。身穿合体衬衫的职员分发非全日制班的小册子,或者向进进出出的学生售卖教科书。

They’re catering to young Cambodians looking for a step up in an emerging economy. For years, learning English has been a prerequisite for many Cambodians wanting to get ahead. But with China’s increasing clout and its conspicuous investment in the region, speaking Chinese has also become a valuable skill.
The results of China’s soft power efforts are up for debate. But here in Phnom Penh, many young people are just as eager to learn about Chinese culture and language as China is to export it. A local association of Chinese-Cambodians claims there are some 30,000 full or part-time students now learning the language—many of them in places like Jing Fa Chinese School, which offers basic Chinese lessons at modest prices.
In a ground-level classroom open to the street, students step around parked motorbikes and find their seats. At the whiteboard in front, director Long Sochea speaks slowly to the beginners’ class, raising his voice to be heard over the din of the passing traffic.
When Sochea started teaching Chinese in the 1990s, he only had a handful of students—mainly Cambodians with Chinese roots trying to brush up on a distant ancestral tongue. Now, he says, almost all his students are Khmer with no Chinese heritage. Learning Mandarin, they hope, will give them an advantage in the business world.

他们正在为那些试图接近新兴经济体(中国)的柬埔寨年轻人服务。多少年来,对于那些想获得成功的柬埔寨人来说学英语是先决条件。但是随着中国在柬埔寨的影响力以及投资越来越多,会说汉语已经成为了一项非常有价值的技能。
中国为增强软实力而付出的努力其结果还有待人们的讨论。但是在金边,正如中国急于向海外输出软实力一样,许多年轻人都非常热衷学习中国的文化和语言。一家当地的中柬协会说现在有大约有3万名正式或者业余的汉语学习生,他们中很多人都在像Jing Fa这样的中文学校学习,以便宜的价格提供最基本的汉语课程。
在一个面向街道的地面教室里,学生们在停靠摩托车的地方随便找了个位置。一名汉语老师在前面的白板边向初学者们缓慢的讲课,当有车辆经过时他得大声讲话盖过汽车的声音才能让学生们听到。
这名老师在90年代的时候就开始教汉语了,当时只有少量学生,主要是想学习祖先语言的柬埔寨中国人。现在他所有的学生几乎都是与中国没有关系的高棉人。他们希望学习汉语可以帮助他们在商界获得优势。

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“Cambodian families are encouraging their children to study Chinese,” he says, “because they want their children to get jobs.” The school also offers basic lessons in other languages, including English, Korean and Vietnamese. But when new students ask him for advice, Sochea says he steers them in one direction.

柬埔寨人的家庭正鼓励他们的孩子学习中文,”他说,“因为他们希望他们的孩子能找到工作,”学校也提供其他语言的基础课,包括英语、韩语和越南语,但是当新生征求他的建议时,Sochea说他只引导他们朝那一个方向。

“I tell them to look at the investments other countries are making,” he says. “The real money in Cambodia is coming mostly from China.”

“我告诉他们看看有哪些国家正在柬埔寨投资,”他说,“这里的绝大多数投资来自中国。”

China has become a dominant investor here. Since 2005, approved investments from Chinese companies in Cambodia have exceeded $8 billion USD, according to the Cambodian Investment Board—far above the sums expended by the next closest, Korea. But these figures offer just a partial picture of Chinese ventures in Cambodia; they represent only projects approved for tax exemptions and other incentives. They also don’t include investors in the country’s special economic zones, or smaller projects approved by provincial authorities.

在柬埔寨,中国已经成了最主要的投资者,从2005年开始,经核准的来自中国公司在柬埔寨的投资额已经超过80亿美元,根据柬埔寨投资局统计,这个金额已经远远超过下一个最接近的韩国的总支出,然而这些数字只是展现了中国企业的在柬埔寨的一个小部分,这些仅仅代表了经批准的免税和其他奖励项目,并没有包括在该国的经济特区的投资,或规模较小的和经省级主管部门批准的项目。

These often murky investments have little public transparency and, conveniently for the Cambodian government, lack the demand for accountability and oversight associated with Western investments and aid projects. Many of the rural Chinese investments are situated on controversial government land concessions, which rights groups blame for fueling a simmering land crisis that sees ordinary Cambodians losing land and homes to powerful business interests.

这些常常是阴暗的投资很少有公开透明的,而且方便了柬埔寨政府,但缺少了西方投资和援助项目相关的问责和监督机制。许多中国在当地农村投资在政府减价出卖的有争议土地上,人权团体指责其助长了暗流涌动的土地危机,因为强大的商业利益,使很多柬埔寨普通民众流离失所。

In the city, Chinese funding is earmarked for expansive urban developments and infrastructure projects. In the countryside, Chinese firms are active in large-scale hydropower, logging, steel, rubber and industrial-scale agro-business. Chinese money is literally changing the shape of Cambodia’s landscape.

在城市里,中国提供的资金被用于城市扩张和基础设施建设,在农村,中国企业活跃在大型水电,伐木,钢铁,橡胶,工业规模的农业企业等产业。中国资金确实改变了柬埔寨的现状。

For Chea Munyrith, China’s prominence in today’s Cambodia stands in marked contrast with his childhood growing up in the post-Khmer Rouge era of the 1980s. He remembers his ethnic Chinese grandmother being too afraid to speak her Teochew dialect; she didn’t bother to teach it to him.
“She told me that we are Khmer, so we must speak Khmer now,” he says. “She didn’t want to talk about being Chinese.”
As an adult, however, Munyrith now finds Chinese integral to his career. He’s the co-director of the country’s first Confucius Institute, the academies that have been at the forefront of China’s global cultural push. Munyrith learned Mandarin so he could communicate with his Chinese counterparts.
Since 2010, the Confucius Institute here has been offering language lessons to Cambodian public servants. The adult students include government bureaucrats, officers and cabinet level officials.

对于Chea Munyrith来说,中国现在在柬埔寨的突出表现和80年代他童年时的红色高棉政权形成鲜明对比。他记得他的祖母太害怕而不敢说潮州话,她也没有把这一方言教给他。
“她告诉我我们是高棉人,所以我们现在要说高棉语,”他说道。“她不想谈论作为中国人的事。”
然而,作为一个成年人,他现在发现中国与他的事业密切相关。他是这个国家第一所孔子学院——走在中国全球文化推广前列的院校的联合总监。他现在在学习普通话,这样他就可以和中国同行交流了。
2010年以来,孔子学院已经面向柬埔寨公务员开设了语言课程。成年学生包括政府官员,高级职员及内阁成员。

“Today, Chinese is not just the language of business,’ Munyrith says. ‘It’s the language of politics.”
And when it comes to politics, recent events have shown China and Cambodia are often speaking the same language. China’s ongoing territorial disputes in the South China Sea have caused friction within the region. As last year’s chair of the regional bloc, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Cambodia was accused of siding with China ahead of its own neighbours when it came to discussions on the maritime dispute.
Pavin Chachavalpongpun, an associate professor at Kyoto University, says the trend among ordinary Cambodians to learn Chinese is an acknowledgement of China’s increasing prominence.

“现在,中文已经不仅仅是商业语言,”他说。“它是政治语言。”
当它和政治有关系时,近期事件说明中国和柬埔寨经常说同样的语言。中国持续在南海制造领土争端导致了该地区的摩擦。作为去年东盟区的主席,它讨论海事纠纷时被指偏袒中国而不是它的邻居。
京都大学的副教授 Pavin Chachavalpongpun说, 柬埔寨人学说汉语的趋势说明中国在该地区的影响力越来越大。

“This is about accepting the Chinese leadership in the region,” says Pavin, who has researched Chinese soft power. “When you study another country’s language, you understand and you accept the leadership of that country.”
But as the ASEAN controversy showed, the Chinese largesse in Cambodia does come with implied obligations. For many starting to learn Chinese, however, it represents an opportunity for a promising future. Back at Jing Fa Chinese School, afternoon classes have wrapped up. Twenty-six-year-old Kaing Mengty is packing up his books and getting ready to head back to his job selling Chinese-made goods at a nearby market.
“I don’t know much about China,” he says. “I just know my country. Cambodian people can make money by trading with China.”

“这和接受中国作为地区领袖有关,”研究中国软实力的Pavin说。“当你学习另一个国家的语言,你就了解和接受了该国的领导地位。”
但当东盟出现分歧,中国在柬埔寨的慷慨就伴随着隐含的义务。 然而这对于开始学习中文的人来说 ,这代表一个有前途的未来的机会。回到京法(音译)中文学校,下午的课已经上完了。26岁的Kaing Mengty正收拾书,然后去旁边的超市卖中国造的东西。
“我不是很了解中国,”他说。“我只了解我的国家。柬埔寨人民能通过贸易从中国赚钱。”


来源: 龙腾网

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Post time 2013-6-3 22:03:10 |Display all floors
"a lesson on Mandarin tones" should be translated as:
关于普通话(国语)声调的一课

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