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女士小孩优先?不,危机之下自保性命要紧 [Copy link] 中文

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Post time 2012-10-15 17:29:29 |Display all floors
关于泰坦尼克沉没的新研究显示,越是性命攸关的紧急关头下,人就会变得越自私。

多几分钟的考虑时间会让人们做出礼让他人的高尚举动。
Just a few minutes more thinking time seems to mean people do the honourable thing, helping others before themselves.

不过研究人员总结得出,如果可供思考的时间紧迫,那么“适者生存”的想法便主导了一切。
But if they have no time to consider, then "survival of the fittest" thoughts dominate, researchers have concluded.

这项发表在《美国科学研究院学报》上的发现源自对20世纪初两艘英国远洋沉船与其幸存者的研究。
The findings, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, came from a study of the sinking of two British ocean going liners in the early 20th century and their survivors.

以在三小时内沉没的泰坦里克号为例,船上从头至尾都遵循了“女士小孩优先”的准则。
In the case of the Titanic, which took just under three hours to sink, the "women and children first" rule was famously followed.

因此幸存者中女士、小孩和带小孩的人士占了绝大多数,像路西塔尼亚号这种沉没时间很短的情况下,人们毫无章法可言,大家首先考虑的只是自己。
Women, children and those accompanying a child therefore made up the majority of the survivors. When time was short, as in the sinking of the Lusitania, order broke down and selfish "everyman for himself" attitudes took over.  

昆士兰科技大学的本诺·托格勒博士和同事们认为,路西塔尼亚号上16到35周岁的人群中,男性生存率高出7.9%,女性高出10.4%。
As a result those aged 16 to 35 – the fittest – survived the sinking which took just 18 minutes. Dr Benno Torgler, of Queensland University of Technology, and colleagues said males and females aged 16 to 35 had a 7.9 per cent and 10.4 per cent higher chances of survival on the Lusitania respectively.

相比之下,泰坦尼克号上青年女性的生存率更高(48.3%),尤其是带孩子的女性,而男性的生存率则相对偏低。
In contrast, on the Titanic young females, especially those with children, had a higher probability of surviving (48.3 per cent) whereas there male counterparts were less likely to live.

研究人员称:“女士小孩优先”的社会规范只有在泰坦尼克号上才得以体现。”
The researchers said: "The social norm of "women and children first" was deferred to only on the Titanic.

“这一社会规范被船员强调也为乘客所接受——否则乘客轻而易举就能背信弃义。”
"This social norm was enforced by the crew members and considered acceptable by the passengers – otherwise the passengers could have easily revolted against such a protocol.

“两起海难中,船长都通知指挥官和船员要遵守‘女士小孩优先’的社会规范。”
"In both disasters the captains issued orders to their officers and crew to follow the social norm of "women and children first".

“泰坦尼克号的逃生有条不紊地进行着,但在路西塔尼亚号上,由于时间紧迫和救生艇安置的问题,一切都乱了套。”
"These orders were successfully carried out on the Titanic but not on the Lusitania due to time constraints and problems launching the lifeboats."

较高的生存率取决于救生艇上的一席之地,也和路西塔尼亚号的救生艇低效安置有关,那些能挤上救生艇的身强力壮者或是掉到海里还能游回来的人更容易存活下来。
A higher survival rate could be a result not only of the struggle for a place on a lifeboat but also of inefficient launching of lifeboats on the Lusitania, so individuals who were strong enough to stay in the boats or get back in after falling out were likelier to live.

研究人员称:“由于路西塔尼亚号在18分钟内就沉没了,所以船上适者生存的竞争状况要比泰坦尼克号上激烈得多。年轻力壮者的生存几率更高。”
The researchers said: "Because the Lusitania sank in under 18 minutes we would expect a stronger competition for survival of the fittest on that ship than on the Titanic.

“泰坦尼克号上,社会规范被反复提及,而且很多男性也自愿让出救生艇上的座位。”
People in their prime are expected to have higher survival probabilities.
"In the environment of the Titanic social norms were enforced more often and there was also a higher willingness among males to surrender a seat on a lifeboat."

作者们提出,在积极社会行为取代短期本能反应的紧急状态下,时间恐慌会大大影响我们的决策。
The authors propose time pressure may crucially influence us in extreme survival situations with short-run flight instincts dominating initial reactions which are then overridden by pro-social behaviours.

他们称:“我们的研究表明,某种行为的采纳取决于时间因素——尽管时间并非唯一起作用的因素。”
They said: "Our analysis suggests the adoption of a specific behaviour might depend on time as a factor – although time may not be the only factor at work.

“但是在沉没较慢的泰坦尼克号上,积极社会行为占了主导位置,而在沉没时间较短的路西塔尼亚号上,更多的只是自私自利的行为。”
"Nonetheless it seems on the more slowly sinking Titanic prosocial behaviour predominated in a stronger manner whereas more selfish conduct prevailed on the rapidly sinking Lusitania."

1912年4月15日,泰坦尼克号撞上北大西洋的一处冰山后沉没,共1517人丧生;1915年5月7日,从纽约马上要抵达利物浦的路西塔尼亚号受到德国鱼雷偷袭而沉没,共1198人丧生。
Up to 1,517 people died after the Titanic struck an iceberg in the North Atlantic on 15 April 1912 while 1,198 lost their lives on the Lusitania which had almost reached Liverpool from New York when it was hit by a German torpedo on 7 May 1915.


来源:译言网

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