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别让坏习惯消磨掉你的意志力 [Copy link] 中文

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别让坏习惯消磨掉你的意志力

Post written by Leo Babauta.

——Leo Babauta


Have you ever set out to start a new habit or goal, but found your willpower lacking?
你是否曾想过要养成好习惯,设立新目标, 但却发现自己没有毅力实现?


Many new ventures are foiled by the morning email habit, for example — we want to exercise or write or meditate, but we can’t resist checking out email for just a minute … and then we’ve gotten lost, down the rabbit hole.

        早上收发邮件的习惯使许多新计划落空。比如,我们想要锻炼、写作或者冥想,但是却难以抗拒查看邮件的习惯。然后我们在习惯的深渊中迷失,不能自拔。


How can we build the willpower to beat these bad habits?

        如何才能增强意志力克服坏习惯呢?



Reader Shanna Mann recently wrote:

     读者Shanna Mann近来写道:


“I’d love to see how to get over willpower being the final word on goal-setting :). I was doing morning pages this morning, and in spite of enjoying it, valuing the clarity it brings, and being able to quantifiably measure how much more productive they make me, I find it so hard to write them instead of check my emails first thing in the morning.

         “我想知道设定目标时,怎样才能克服意志力薄弱的问题。今天早上我在写作。尽管我乐在其中,明白早上写作我思维清晰,也知道这样更高效。但是跟查收邮件相比,早上起来第一件事就是写作该有多困难啊。


What the hell am I missing here?”

到底是缺了什么呢?"


Shanna, of course, is talking about Julia Cameron’s suggestion to write three long-hand pages of free-flowing consciousness every morning, no matter what, before you do anything else. I’m kinda doing that right now, as I write this post.

Shanna是在谈Julia Cameron的三页建议。Julia Cameron说每天早上第一件事就是要写三页,想到什么就写什么,题材不限,文体不限。我现在也在写,你现在读的这篇文章就是其中之一。


It’s a beautiful habit. But Shanna is tripped up by the urge to check emails first thing every day. Is she lacking in willpower to achieve her goals?

       早上写作是个美好的习惯。但是Shanna被早上第一件事就是查收邮件给绊住了。她真的缺乏实现目标的意志力吗?


In a word: no. It’s not a lack of willpower, but a very strongly ingrained (possibly bad) habit that’s beating her goal. Checking email first thing is a habit that has been repeated daily for years probably, with a positive feedback loop (I have new email! I’m productive!) that has reinforced the habit until it’s a very strong urge that’s hard to beat.

        简言之:非也。她并非意志薄弱,而是被根深蒂固的坏习惯挡住了道路。每天早上第一件事——收发邮件这一习惯她可能已经数年如一日了。收到新邮件,会使人感到自己是高效的。这一正反馈使收发邮件的习惯更加坚不可摧。


There’s also negative feedback for not doing the habit: you feel like you’re missing something important if you don’t check email, and so you go through withdrawal. It’s exactly how drug addiction works.

         而且不收发邮件也有负面影响:如果没有查看邮箱,你会觉得自己错过了重要的事情。于是你还是回去查看了邮箱。这跟吸毒上瘾如出一辙。


How to Beat the Addiction

怎样击溃习惯瘾?



So what’s the answer? Replace the bad habit with a good one. You can’t just stop a bad habit, because then you’re left with a gaping hole and nothing to fill it.

      答案就是用一个好习惯代替原来的坏习惯。你不能仅废除一个坏习惯,你还要填补坏习惯留下的空缺。


Bad habits fill real needs. In this case, email fills a need to be up-to-date, to feel important. You have to figure out what the need is first, and then come up with a strategy for filling that need in some other way. I would suggest replacing it with a habit that helps you to feel important (perhaps the morning pages) and maybe learning that you don’t need to be up-to-date right away — you can do it an hour later and still be fine.

        坏习惯往往是因需求而养成的。而邮件填补了对信息的需求。你应该先搞清楚什么需求最重要,然后寻找策略看能不能用其他方式代替。我建议培养能让自己感到有成就感的习惯比较好,比如早上写作。而且要学会暗示自己你并不需要立即去查收邮件,一小时后再看也无妨。


There are several steps to beating a bad habit:

以下几步助你击溃坏习惯:



1. Figure out what your trigger is. For Shanna, her trigger for checking email is waking up in the morning. Every habit has a trigger — something in our routine that directly precedes the habit. For smoking, I used to have multiple triggers — drinking coffee, eating a meal, stress, drinking alcohol with friends, meetings, waking up in the morning, etc.

       1. 找出坏习惯的起因。对Shanna来说,查收邮件就像早上的闹钟。所有的习惯都有起因——我们日常生活中的一些事都为这些习惯铺平了道路。比如我以前吸烟,这是有很多原因的:喝咖啡、吃饭、压力、与朋友聚会喝多了、会议、早起等等。



2. Find a replacement habit. A small, positive habit to replace the old habit. Ideally it fills at least some of the needs of the old habit. Start very, very small in the beginning or you’ll be facing an uphill battle. If you want to write morning pages, don’t try to write three long-hand pages — do just five minutes. If it’s small, you beat the obstacle of dreading to do the new habit. When you check email, for example, you don’t say, “I’m going to do an hour of email now!” You say, “I’ll just check it for a second.” It often turns into more, but the point is there is a very low entry barrier.

       2. 找一个小小的积极的习惯来代替原来的坏习惯。新习惯至少能填补就习惯的空缺。新习惯要从小处开始,否则就准备迎接艰苦的战斗吧。如若要培养早上写作的习惯,写5分钟即可,不要想着一次写个3张。如果新习惯目标比较小,则很容易做到。比如当查收邮件时,你绝不会说:“我要看一个小时的邮件喽!”你说的是:“我只是看一两眼。”结果是看邮件用了很长时间。道理就在这里,查看邮件的障碍很小,很容易做到。


3. Engineer positive & negative feedback. If positive feedback has built up your old habit, and negative feedback is stopping you from quitting the old habit, you need to make these powerful forces work for you and not against you. You can’t beat them, so use them. Engineer positive feedback for your new habit: make the writing (for example) really enjoyable, with a cup of coffee and a quiet, peaceful setting, and focus on the enjoyability of it, not the hard parts. If you want to meditate, focus on how relaxed it makes you, not how difficult it is.

       3. 管理积极反馈和校级反馈。如果老习惯的积极反馈使老习惯日益根深蒂固,消极反馈也在阻碍你戒掉老习惯,你要做的是让这些积极和消极反馈都能为我作用而非阻我行动。不能打败积极和消极反馈,那利用他们吧。合理管理积极反馈,为新习惯铺设道路:比如写作的时候,找一块安静舒适的地方、捧一杯咖啡、专注于写作带来的愉悦而非艰辛。比如你要打坐冥想,多想想这将使你的身心轻松愉悦,而不是想着冥想有多困难。


Do the same for negative feedback for not doing the new habit. If you don’t do the new habit, what’s the consequence? Usually, nothing. You check email, feel a little guilty, but no one knows, nothing bad happens. So engineer a different consequence: tell the world (or a small group of friends) you’re going to change — announce it through Twitter, Facebook, G+, email, blog. And report your success (or failure) every single day. When the world is watching, you want to succeed. Have accountability partners. Don’t let yourself slide secretly.

        对阻碍你开始新习惯的消极反馈也是同样的方法。没有培养新习惯会有什么后果呢?一般来说,没什么后果。你查看了邮件,感到有点自我愧疚,但没人知道,什么事也没有。所以要创造一个严重的后果:向全世界(或者是一群朋友)宣称你要改变——通过推特、脸书、谷歌微博、电子邮件、博客告诉大家。而且每天都回报你的进步(或失败)。当大家都在关注时,你会渴望成功。找一个可靠的同伴,不要一个人孤军奋战。

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Post time 2012-6-20 11:21:48 |Display all floors
This post was edited by ttt222 at 2012-6-20 11:23

4. Do the new habit immediately after the trigger, consistently. If you can do it for a month, you’ll probably have a new habit. A new habit is built by doing an action immediately after a trigger, repeatedly, for a certain number of repetitions. There is no set number — it depends on how easy the habit is (which is why I suggest starting as easy as possible) and how consistent you are in repeating it. Report to your accountability group after you do the habit.

       4. 想培养新习惯要立即行动。一件事坚持一个月,也就成习惯了。有了想要培养新习惯的动机后,要即刻行动,坚持不懈,循环往复。重复的次数并不限定——这取决于你的新习惯的难易程度(这也是为什么我建议开始的时候从容易的地方开始)以及行动的连续性。向你的亲友团回报你的成绩。


5. Beat the urge to do the old habit. The urge will come, I guarantee you. This is where you say, “But I don’t have the willpower!” Yes, you do. Everyone does, but they just don’t know the tricks. I’m going to teach you the tricks so you have no excuses:

       5. 击溃因袭旧习的冲动。冲动肯定会来的。每到这时你会说:“我没毅力!”不,你有的。大家都有的,只是大家不知道其中的窍门。下面就是诀窍,所以不要再为因袭旧习的冲动找借口。


Pay attention to the urges. The urges win when you let them go unnoticed. They have power. Pay attention.

      谨防因袭旧习的冲动。如果不经心,老习惯会悄悄回来。它有这能力,要注意。


Know that the urges come in waves. They build up like a wave, they get strong, they crest, and then they go away. You just need to wait a minute or two before you’re over the crest.

        要知道旧习惯的刺激和冲动像波浪一样有涨有落,它们慢慢高涨、达到高峰然后会滑落。你只需等个一两分钟就能克服冲动的高峰。


Try deep breathing. Take a few very long, slow breaths. The urge is a feeling of anxiety, tightness in your chest. The breaths help relieve that anxiety, and it passes. Try some self-massage too — massage your shoulders to relax yourself.

         试着深呼吸。长长的慢慢的吸几口气然后慢慢的吐出来。因袭旧习的冲动像焦虑和紧张的感觉集结胸中。深呼吸有助于释放焦虑。也可以试试自我按摩——按摩肩膀自我放松。


Walk around a bit. Physical activity helps you to get over the urges. Walk, do some pushups, some bodyweight squats, jump up and down, do some shadowboxing.

       没事走两步。运动有助于我们克服因袭旧习的冲动。散步、俯卧撑、蹲下起立、上串下跳、太极拳都可以。

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This post was edited by ttt222 at 2012-6-20 11:29

Use your accountability group. Call an accountability partner if you’re having an especially hard time. Make this person a promise that you won’t do the bad habit unless you call her first.

       寻求亲友团的帮助。实在撑不下不的时候,打电话给你可靠的同伴,跟她保证在给她打电话之前你不会重操旧习。



Give yourself little treats/rewards when changing a habit. Maybe daily, maybe once a week. It can work wonders to give yourself a pat on the shoulder, a massage, a nice dinner out, a big plate of delicious tropical fruit, for example.

        改变了某个旧习惯后定期给自己一些奖励。比如每天或每周表扬一下自己、享受一下按摩、出去吃顿好的、整一大盘诱人的热带水果。



Et voila. These small tricks will get you past the urges, which can be strong but will subside. And the miracle is, if you can do this for a week, you’ll be past the worst urges. They will start to get weaker and weaker, until they’re incredibly easy to beat.

       小小的奖励能让自己战胜因袭旧习的冲动,冲动有时会很强烈但终将退却。奖励的奇效是,如果坚持一周,你将会跨过冲动的高峰。高峰过后,因袭旧习的冲动会慢慢变弱,直到消失殆尽。



Be mindful of the urges, of your rationalizations. Yes, there will be many rationalizations — our brains are very, very good at justifying doing the old action. Pay close attention. This is really the most important trick, and it doesn’t take a master of willpower to do it. We’re all capable of paying attention.

        留意因袭旧习的冲动,警戒冲动的借口。肯定会有很多因袭旧习的理由——我们的大脑善于为旧习辩解。要注意,警戒旧习冲动非常最重要。而且这并不需要多大意志力,我们都有这个能力。


Beating old habits isn’t a matter of having a mountain of willpower. It’s a matter of paying attention, doing a small new habit in its place, and using some easy tricks to overcome the forces that work against us. Anyone can do it — I’ve done it many times, and I assure you, for many years I thought I had the least amount of willpower of anyone in the world. I was lazy, overweight, a smoker, broke and deeply in debt … the list goes on and on, but I was nowhere near disciplined.

        击败旧习并不需要坚如磐石般的毅力,需要的是我们的心思。用小小的新习惯代替旧习惯,用轻巧的计策克服不利因素。每个人都能做到——我就是活生生的例子,很长一段时间我都认为自己是这个世界上最没意志力的人。懒散、肥胖、吸烟、破产、债台高筑等等等等,但是我现在已经是个自律有素的人了。


If I can do it, you can. Willpower exists, but its importance has been built up in our minds so that when we fail at something, we blame it on lack. There is no lack, except in understanding of the forces that conspire against us.

         如果我能做到,那你也能。 毅力实实在在的就在那里。但是我们过分强调了毅力的重要性,当失败的时候,我们怪自己没有毅力。我们不缺毅力,缺少的是对强大的阻力的认识。


I generally avoid temptation unless I can’t resist it.’ ~Mae West

      “一般我会远离诱惑,除非难以抗拒。”~Mae West



来源:译言网

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