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We identified six categories that form the bases for hypothesizing different orientations of child welfare and child protection: Gate Keeping; Skills in Context; Client Identity; Decision Points; Compulsion; and Measures.
In Canadian child protection, the most needy children are eligible for a limited range of services, intervention is structure driven and more focused on protection and permanency planning. The implications of these findings to social work are discussed.
Sweden has been described as a social welfare state from various theoretical points of view.the social welfare state emphasises high quality living conditions through tax financed public services and environmental planning.Everyone share the vast majority of benefits created by tax transfers sometime during their life span,without means tests.
And one of Sweden's family policy is to establish good condiditons for raising children,even during the economic recession in the early 1990ies with high unemployment.Social and medical support systems for parents and children were expanded radically during the decades after WWII..
Swedish child welfare legislation makes no strict distinction between child protection and youth justice.
Australia provides comprehensive information on state and territory child protection and support services. as well as trend data on child protection notifications, investigations and substantiations, children on care and protection orders and children in out-of-home care. Detailed information on the characteristics of children in the child protection system is presented, specifically data on their age, sex and Indigenous status. In addition, for child protection substantiations, data on the family type and the source of notification are also included. For children on care and protection orders there are data on types of orders and living arrangements, and for children in out-of-home care there are data on types of placements and length of time in out-of-home care.
The underlying principle Norway governing all child welfare efforts is devotion to the child’s best interests. As a general rule, it is assumed that children will grow up with their biological parents. This biological criterion forms the foundation for Norwegian legislation regulating the relationship between children and parents. A child’s affiliation with its parents is considered to be a resource in and of itself.
The Danish education system provides access to primary school, secondary school, and most kinds of higher education. Attendance at "Folkeskole" or equivalent education is compulsory for a minimum of 9 years. Equivalent education could be in private schools or classes attended at home. About 99% of students attend elementary school, 86% attend secondary school, and 41% pursue further education. All college education in Denmark is free.
lthough Singapore has a developed social welfare system to address children’s needs, there are no provisions to ensure the right of the child to express his views and opinions in protective proceedings.
The Children and Young Persons Act (Chapter 38) was enacted to provide for the welfare, care and protection of children. The Act protects children from abuse, neglect and abandonment and institutes punishment when adults are careless or neglectful. The Act provides for the removal of abused children to a place of safety even before they are brought in front of a court which will then decide on orders for their care and custody.
the Guardianship of Infants Act states that the welfare of the child shall be the first and paramount consideration in any court proceedings involving the custody or upbringing of a person below 21 years or the administration of any property belonging to or held in trust for that child. The powers of the guardian under the act are also limited to ensure that the child’s interests are safeguarded. The court encourages conciliation and cooperation to achieve a consensual outcome which focuses on the welfare of children.
children are given the right to express their views.
It is said that the Nordic countries are world leaders in child welfare. Still, the number of Finnish children who are clients of child protectionservices has trebled over the past fifteen years. Likewise, during the same period of time, the number of children and young people placed outside the home has increased year after year. In the early 1990s, the Finnish economy went through a particularly deep economic recession (Harrikari & Satka 2008) and, because of this, basic social services for families with children were cut in all areas of social welfare, from maternity clinics to home-help service to youth work. Although Finland still is a welfare state and among the richest countries in the world, the relative number of children living under the poverty line has trebled between 1990 and 2004. These are some of the background facts for the total reform of child welfare legislation.
As one of superpowers , definately it has mature child welfare system .
Dutch children have been rated the most fortunate children in Europe. Their parents go out of their way to please them, and teachers expect less of them than some of their European counterparts.
The study by the UN children's organisation, Unicef, looked at relative poverty, educational and health standards, sexual behaviour and the children's relationship with friends and parents. The Netherlands has always been a very child-centred society.
It's almost a caricature that children are the ones that decide what happens within the family," says Mr Vangeert. "Their wishes become so strong that parents have to work very hard to give them what they want. Sometimes, there can be a lack of balance between the happiness of the child and that of the parent."
Uruguay,laptop for every pupil .
Uruguay has joined the small number of nations providing a laptop for every child attending state primary school.
Uruguay is part of the One Laptop Per Child scheme, an organisation set up by internet pioneer Nicholas Negroponte. His original vision was to provide laptops at $100 (£61) but they proved more expensive.
The Uruguay programme has cost the state $260 (£159) per child, including maintenance costs, equipment repairs, training for the teachers and internet connection