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双语:会双语能延缓老年痴呆的发生 [Copy link] 中文

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Post time 2012-4-5 14:38:17 |Display all floors
Quick Study [kwik stuhd-ee]: The Huffington Post Canada's tips to make your life a little sweeter, five minutes at a time. Think of it as a cheatsheet for your general well-being.
快捷研究[kwik stuhd-ee]:《赫芬顿邮报》(加拿大版)(The Huffington Post Canada)的一些提示会使你的生活更甜蜜,只要你每次坚持五分钟。为了您的幸福健康,请将它作为一个备忘单。

Many Canadians can attest that the bonuses of being bilingual are bountiful. Learning a second language has been shown to bring in more income and offers a more flexible mindset -- and now, a study out of York University in Ontario links knowing two languages with a delay in the onset of dementia and Alzheimer's Disease.
许多加拿大人可以证明,会双语好处多多。学习另一门语言已被证实能给学习者带来更多的收入并使其保持更灵活的心态[注1]——现在加拿大安大略省约克大学(York University)的一项研究发现,会双语能延迟智力衰退和老年痴呆症(即阿尔茨海默症)的发生。

The research, published last Friday in "Trends in Cognitive Sciences", peeks into the minds of bilingual adults and looks at how bilingualism combats degenerative mental diseases like Alzheimer's or dementia -- and the results are promising. According to Dr. Ellen Bialystok, the lead researcher in the study, bilingual adults were found to have a greater cognitive reserve as they got older that allows the mind to run longer and more smoothly.
这项刊发于上周五《认知科学趋势》(Trends in Cognitive Sciences)的研究窥探了会双语成年人的头脑,它观察了双语制如何与像阿尔茨海默症这类心智衰退疾病作斗争——研究结果很是振奋人心。根据约克大学心理学系艾伦•比亚韦斯托克(Ellen Bialystok)博士所负责的这项研究,会双语的成年人会随着年龄的增长而有更大的认知储备,这能使其心智运作时间更长、运作机制更顺畅。

"It is rather like a reserve tank in a car. When you run out of fuel, you can keep going for longer because there is a bit more in the safety tank," said Bialystok in an interview with the Guardian.
比亚韦斯托克在接受《卫报》采访时说,“这就像汽车上的储备油箱。当你常规的燃料用完了,你还可以继续下去,因为你的安全油箱里还有一些。”

By knowing two languages, the brain's regions that govern general attention and cognitive control are more stimulated, compared with someone who is monolingual. The anticipation of having to speak one of two language at any given time forces the brain to run continually, and results in an experience that helps avoid a mental conflict between languages.
与只会一门语言的人相比,那些学习两门语言的人的大脑中负责一般的注意和认知控制的区域能获得更多的刺激。在任何给定的时间里说两种语言中的一种这一预期会迫使大脑不停地运转,其结果是它有助于避免两种语言之间的心智冲突。

But learning a second language, particularly as an adult, can be difficult. A language's difficulty varies by its similarity to a person's native tongue. Languages close to English like French, Italian and Spanish can take anywhere from 23 to 24 weeks to achieve proficiency, while a language that bears little resemblance to English, like Arabic, means a commitment as long as 88 weeks.
但学习另一门语言,特别是对一个成人来说,可能很困难。学习一门语言的困难程度因其与学习者的母语相似度而有所差异。学习较为接近英语的语言,如法语、意大利语和西班牙语,学习者只要花上23到24周时间便可熟练掌握这门语言;而学习像阿拉伯语这些与英语相似度较低的语言,恐怕要学习88周以上。

According to Ana Teresa Pérez-Leroux, a Spanish and linguistics professor at the University of Toronto, there are two big factors that affect a person's success for mastering a second language. While some are controllable, others, like your physiology, aren't.
据多伦多大学西班牙语和语言学教授安娜•特蕾莎•佩雷斯—勒洛斯(Ana Teresa Pérez-Leroux)的说法,有两大因素影响一个人成功掌握另一门语言。虽然其中有些是可控的,而另一些,像你的心理机能,则是不可控的。

"Brain-wise, there are big changes around the age of six and then there's a decline around puberty," said Pérez-Leroux when asked about barriers facing learning new language learners. She added that a person's social network can also influence success with another language.
当佩雷斯—勒洛斯被问及学习者学习新的语言时会面临哪些障碍时她说,“人的大脑在六岁左右有很大的变化,接着在青春期下降。”她还说,一个人的社会网络也会影响他成功掌握另一门语言。

Things like a person's network of speakers, their desire to consume the language, and their willingness to reach out and seek new affiliations also come into play, according to Pérez-Leroux. She noted, "the more you hear the second language, the more you'll experience it and the more you will learn."
根据佩雷斯—勒洛斯的说法,如果一个人有说这种语言的社会网络——他们渴望使用这门语言,他们会伸出援手并寻找新人参与进来。她还说,“学习另一门语言时,你听得越多,你会体验越多,当然你也就学得越多。”

English source from: http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/201 ... gual_n_1396671.html
Chinese from: http://article.yeeyan.org/view/39879/263739

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