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Quick Study [kwik stuhd-ee]: The Huffington Post Canada's tips to make your life a little sweeter, five minutes at a time. Think of it as a cheatsheet for your general well-being.|
快捷研究[kwik stuhd-ee]：《赫芬顿邮报》（加拿大版）（The Huffington Post Canada）的一些提示会使你的生活更甜蜜，只要你每次坚持五分钟。为了您的幸福健康，请将它作为一个备忘单。
Many Canadians can attest that the bonuses of being bilingual are bountiful. Learning a second language has been shown to bring in more income and offers a more flexible mindset -- and now, a study out of York University in Ontario links knowing two languages with a delay in the onset of dementia and Alzheimer's Disease.
The research, published last Friday in "Trends in Cognitive Sciences", peeks into the minds of bilingual adults and looks at how bilingualism combats degenerative mental diseases like Alzheimer's or dementia -- and the results are promising. According to Dr. Ellen Bialystok, the lead researcher in the study, bilingual adults were found to have a greater cognitive reserve as they got older that allows the mind to run longer and more smoothly.
这项刊发于上周五《认知科学趋势》（Trends in Cognitive Sciences）的研究窥探了会双语成年人的头脑，它观察了双语制如何与像阿尔茨海默症这类心智衰退疾病作斗争——研究结果很是振奋人心。根据约克大学心理学系艾伦•比亚韦斯托克（Ellen Bialystok）博士所负责的这项研究，会双语的成年人会随着年龄的增长而有更大的认知储备，这能使其心智运作时间更长、运作机制更顺畅。
"It is rather like a reserve tank in a car. When you run out of fuel, you can keep going for longer because there is a bit more in the safety tank," said Bialystok in an interview with the Guardian.
By knowing two languages, the brain's regions that govern general attention and cognitive control are more stimulated, compared with someone who is monolingual. The anticipation of having to speak one of two language at any given time forces the brain to run continually, and results in an experience that helps avoid a mental conflict between languages.
But learning a second language, particularly as an adult, can be difficult. A language's difficulty varies by its similarity to a person's native tongue. Languages close to English like French, Italian and Spanish can take anywhere from 23 to 24 weeks to achieve proficiency, while a language that bears little resemblance to English, like Arabic, means a commitment as long as 88 weeks.
According to Ana Teresa Pérez-Leroux, a Spanish and linguistics professor at the University of Toronto, there are two big factors that affect a person's success for mastering a second language. While some are controllable, others, like your physiology, aren't.
据多伦多大学西班牙语和语言学教授安娜•特蕾莎•佩雷斯—勒洛斯（Ana Teresa Pérez-Leroux）的说法，有两大因素影响一个人成功掌握另一门语言。虽然其中有些是可控的，而另一些，像你的心理机能，则是不可控的。
"Brain-wise, there are big changes around the age of six and then there's a decline around puberty," said Pérez-Leroux when asked about barriers facing learning new language learners. She added that a person's social network can also influence success with another language.
Things like a person's network of speakers, their desire to consume the language, and their willingness to reach out and seek new affiliations also come into play, according to Pérez-Leroux. She noted, "the more you hear the second language, the more you'll experience it and the more you will learn."
English source from: http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/201 ... gual_n_1396671.html
Chinese from: http://article.yeeyan.org/view/39879/263739