Author: expatter

Hitler was a Godsend for Israel ..............    Close [Copy link] 中文

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don't desire any profits from the enemies of Christ". One of the deportees is Antonio Ribera Sanchez, her own personal physician and the head of army's medical dept.   See History of anti-Semitism

1744 Frederick II
The Great (a "heroic genius", according to Hitler) limits Breslau to ten "protected" Jewish families, on the grounds that otherwise they will "transform it into complete Jerusalem". He encourages this practice in other Prussian cities. In 1750 he issues Revidiertes General Privilegium und Reglement vor die Judenschaft: "protected" Jews had an alternative to "either abstain from marriage or leave Berlin" (Simon Dubnow).   See History of anti-Semitism

Archduchess of Austria Maria Theresa orders: "... no Jew is to be tolerated in our inherited duchy of Bohemia" by the end of Feb. 1745. In Dec. 1748 she reverses her position, on condition that Jews pay for readmission every ten years. This extortion was known as malke-geld (queen's money).   See History of anti-Semitism

1744 Livonia
On March 30, 1743, eighteen Jews were expelled from Dorpat, Livonia. Nevertheless, Isaac Marcus Solomon is met with in Riga in 1744, when the governor-general granted him permission to remain in the city for a further period of eight days. When, in Feb., 1744, the children and servant of the Jew David were expelled from the town, the only Jew left in Riga was Moses Meyer, who was allowed to remain because of his connection with a case before the Senate. For the following twenty years there is no record of Jews in the city. See the Jewish Encyclopaedia

1745 Moravia
In 1744 Jews were expelled from Bohemia and 1745 from Moravia under Empress Maria Theresa. 1753 Under the Empress Elizabeth Petrovna about 35,000 Jews were expelled from Russia. 1768 Russia's expansion and the defeat of Poland confronted the Russians with large established Jewish communities, who had previously not been under their rule. Czarina Catherine II, the Great, established a territory, the so-called Pale of Settlement. It was to prevent the Jewish population from influencing Russian society and to be a buffer between Russia and its western neighbours. Jews needed special permits to travel outside the Pale. Persecutions of Jews continued violently in Poland, Lithuania and Russia, were Jews had fled from Crusaders and the Inquisition in western Europe. See

1752. Archduchess of Austria Maria Theresa  introduces the law limiting each Jewish family in Bohemia to one son.   See History of anti-Semitism

1753  Kovad (Lithuania) unconfirmed

1753 Parliament grants citizenship to Jews

1759  A cardinal, later Pope Clement XIV, issues a report condemning blood libel accusations.  See Italy and the Jews - Timeline

1761  Bordeaux unconfirmed

1762 Rhode Island
refuses to grant Jews Aaron Lopez and Isaac Eliezer citizenship stating "no person who is not of the Christian religion can be admitted free to this colony."   See History of anti-Semitism

1768 Haidamaks massacre the Jews of Uman, Poland.   See History of anti-Semitism

1772 Jews deported to the Pale of Settlement (Russia) See Jewish Encyclopaedia

1774  Prague, Bohemia [ unconfirmed ] and Moravia [ unconfirmed ]

1775  Warsaw
Marshal Lubomirski's guard invaded New Jerusalem [ a Jewish suburb], confiscated the merchandise found there, and demolished all the Jewish houses. The merchandise thus seized, which was valued at hundreds of thousands of gulden, was stored in the arsenal and was later sold at public auction, the proceeds being returned to the Jews. See Jewish Encyclopaedia

1775 Pope Pius VI
issues a severe Editto sopra gli ebrei (Edict concerning the Jews). Previously lifted restrictions are reimposed, Judaism is suppressed.   See History of anti-Semitism

1782 Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II
abolishes most of persecution practices in Toleranzpatent on condition that
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Yiddish and Hebrew are eliminated from public records and judicial autonomy is annulled. Judaism is branded "quintessence of foolishness and nonsense". Moses Mendelssohn writes: "Such a tolerance... is even more dangerous play in tolerance than open persecution".   See History of anti-Semitism

1784 Warsaw
In the following year the Jews secured permission to rebuild their houses, but had meanwhile settled in large numbers in the city itself. On May 25, 1784, however, Marshal Mniszek issued an ordinance expelling the Jews from Warsaw and its environs, though it should be noted that the better classes of Polish society condemned the ill treatment of the Warsaw Jews by the Christian merchant and artisan gilds. This is clear from the following paragraph, for example, in the Warsaw periodical "Pamietnik Historyczo-Politiczny" (1783, p. 5): "What terrible spectacles must we witness in the capital on solemn holidays! Students and even adults in noisy mobs persecute the Jews and sometimes beat them with sticks. We ourselves have seen a gang waylay a Jew, stop his horses, and give him such a cudgelling that he fell from the wagon. How can we look with indifference on such a survival of barbarism?" See Jewish Encyclopaedia

1790 May 20.
Eleazer Solomon is quartered for the alleged murder of a Christian girl in Grodno.   See History of anti-Semitism

1789  Alsace
The questions were real. At the very time of the [ French ] Declaration [ of the Rights of Man, 1789 ] anti-Jewish riots broke out in Alsace, the first and ominous indication that the secular nation-state might not end anti-Jewish sentiment, but merely secularize it into a new mode, to be given (in 1879) the name "anti-Semitism." Later in 1789, speaking in a debate on the eligibility of Jews for citizenship, the Count of Clermont-Tonnerre spelled out in a fateful sentence the terms on which Jews could be included in the new political dispensation. "The Jews," he said, "should be denied everything as a nation, but granted everything as individuals." "It is intolerable," he continued, "that the Jews should become a separate political formation or class within the country. Every one of them must individually become a citizen; if they do not want this, they must inform us and we shall then be compelled to expel them." See Love, Hate, and Jewish Identity

1790 "To Bigotry No Sanction, to Persecution No Assistance" (George Washington's Letter to the Jews of Newport, Rhode Island) (   See History of anti-Semitism

1790-1792 Destruction of most of the Jewish communities of Morocco.   See History of anti-Semitism

1791 Catherine II of Russia confines Jews to the Pale of Settlement and imposes them with double taxes. Pale of Settlement (   See History of anti-Semitism

1798 — With the French expulsion of the pope from Rome, Jews are granted equal rights and all earlier special laws relating to their status are revoked. See Italy and the Jews - Timeline

1799 — As a result of the restoration of the old rulers in Italy, the Jews are again ghettoized and the restrictions against them are reimposed. See Italy and the Jews - Timeline

1804  Villages in Russia unconfirmed

1805 Massacre of Jews in Algeria.   See History of anti-Semitism

1808  Villages & Countryside (Russia) unconfirmed

1812 Mar 11 Citizenship granted to Prussian Jews. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

1815 Lübeck [ unconfirmed ]& Bremen unconfirmed

1815  Franconia, Swabia & Bavaria unconfirmed

1815 Mar 11 Citizenship granted to Prussian Jews.

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1816 Mar 06 Jews are expelled from Free city of Lübeck Germany. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

1818 Nov 21 Russia's Czar Alexander I petitions for a Jewish state in Palestine. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

A series of anti-Jewish riots in Germany that spread to several neighbouring countries: Denmark, Poland, Latvia and Bohemia known as Hep-Hep Riots, from the derogatory rallying cry against the Jews in Germany.   See History of anti-Semitism

1820  Bremes unconfirmed

1820 Mar 05 Dutch city of Leeuwarden forbids Jews to go to synagogues on Sundays. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

1827 August 26
Compulsory military service for the Jews of Russia: Jewish boys under 18 years of age, known as the Cantonists, were placed in preparatory military training establishments for 25 years. Cantonists were encouraged and sometimes forced to baptize.   See History of anti-Semitism

1829 Nov 20
Jews are expelled from Russia's Nikolayev Sevastopol. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

1835 Oppressive constitution for the Jews issued by Czar Nicholas I of Russia.   See History of anti-Semitism

1840 The Damascus affair:
false accusations cause arrests and atrocities, culminating in the seizure of sixty-three Jewish children and attacks on Jewish communities throughout the Middle East.   See History of anti-Semitism

1843  Russian Border Austria & Prussia - all unconfirmed

1844 Karl Marx
praises Bruno Bauer's essays containing demands that the Jews abandon Judaism, and publishes his work On the Jewish Question: "What is the worldly cult of the Jew? Huckstering. What is his worldly god? Money... Money is the jealous God of Israel, besides which no other god may exist... The god of the Jews has been secularized and has become the god of this world", "In the final analysis, the emancipation of the Jews is the emancipation of mankind from Judaism."   See History of anti-Semitism

1851 Mar 07
Poll tax levied on Russo-Polish Jews entering Austrian Galicia ends. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

1852 Sep 03 Anti Jewish riots break out in Stockholm. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

1853 Oct 02 Austrian law forbids Jews from owning land. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

1853 Blood libel in Saratov, Russia renews of the blood libels throughout Russia.   See History of anti-Semitism

1858 Edgardo Mortara, a six-year-old Jewish boy, is abducted in Bologna by Catholic conversionists, an episode which aroused universal indignation in liberal circles.   See History of anti-Semitism

1860 Feb 01 First rabbi to open House of Representatives, Morris Raphall of New York NY. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.  [ Oppression? ]

1862 Nov 09 US Grant issues orders to bar Jews from serving under him during the American Civil War.

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1862 Dec 17 General US Grant issues order #11, expelling Jews from Tennessee.

1862 Area in the U.S. under Grant's Jurisdiction by General Order No 11 Wikipedia does not approve. Nor did Abraham Lincoln. It was soon rescinded.

1862 Polish Jews are given equal rights. Old privileges forbidding Jews to settle in some cities are abolished.   See History of anti-Semitism

1866 Galatz unconfirmed

1866 Romania
In 1866 a new sovereign, Carol of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, was elected and a new constitution adopted. Under the pressure of demonstrations organized by the police (during which the Choir Temple in Bucharest was demolished and the Jewish quarter plundered), the seventh article of the constitution, restricting citizenship to the Christian population, was adopted...
In the spring of 1867 the minister of interior, Ion Bratianu, started to expel Jews from the villages and banish non-citizens from the country... Hundreds of families, harassed by humiliating regulations (e.g., a prohibition on building sukkot), were forced to leave the villages. Local officials regarded such persecution as an effective method of extorting bribes. See

Speech of Pope Pius IX in regards to Jews: "of these dogs, there are too many of them at present in Rome, and we hear them howling in the streets, and they are disturbing us in all places."   See History of anti-Semitism

1871 Apr 16
German Empire ends all anti-Jewish civil restrictions.    See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

1878 Adolf Stoecker,
German anti-Semitic preacher and politician, founds the Social Workers' Party, which marks the beginning of the political anti-Semitic movement in Germany.   See History of anti-Semitism

1881 Apr 25 250,000 Germans petition to bar foreign Jews from entering Germany.  See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

1881 Apr 27 Pogroms against Russian Jews start in Elisabethgrad.  See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

1881  May 05 Anti-Jewish rioting in Kiev Ukraine.   See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

1882 Apr 13 Anti-Semitic League forms in Prussia.  See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

1882 May 15 May
Laws-Czar Alexander III bans Jews from living in rural Romania.   See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

1882 Sep 10
First international conference to promote anti-Semitism meets in Dresden Germany (Congress for Safeguarding of Non-Jewish Interests).    See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

1897 Dec 12 Anti-Jewish violence breaks out in Bucharest Romania.    See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

1898 Oct 01 Jews are expelled from Kiev Russia.    See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

1900 Sep 19 (Dreyfus) President Loubet of France pardons Jewish army captain Alfred Dreyfus, twice court-martialled and wrongly convicted of spying for Germany.    See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

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1901 Apr 29 Anti Semitic riot in Budapest.    See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

1905 May 26 A pogrom against Jews in Minsk Byelorussia.    See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

1905  May 29 Pogrom against Jewish community in Brisk Lithuania.     See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.

1917  Jaffa and Tel Aviv, by Turkish Authorities - unconfirmed

1917 The Balfour Declaration proclaimed British support for Jewish settlement in Palestine.

1919  Bavaria (foreign born Jews) unconfirmed

1937  Germany Jews were being encouraged to leave. This policy continued.
At the end of the year the persecution of the Jews intensifies. Over the days of 9-10 November, the Nazis orchestrate the Kristallnacht (Crystal Night) pogrom. Jewish shops, houses and synagogues across Germany are burnt by both the Schutzstaffel (SS) - the 'Blackshirts', Hitler's personal guard - and the general population. Ninety-one Jews are killed. Thirty thousand are arrested and deported.... Hitler is named 'Time' magazine's man of the year.  See Adolf Hitler

1943 Jews In Italy
By 1922 the process of assimilation was almost complete. Of course, it was at this time that the Fascists came to power. At the beginning many Jews supported them, even participating in the March on Rome. However, in 1929 Mussolini passed the Falco Laws. These laws contradicted article 8 of the Italian constitution that allowed freedom of religion.....  In 1938 Mussolini produced his Manifesto of Italian Racism........ . Jews were expelled from all public services, such as the army and also public schools.
In 1940 Mussolini joined the war in alliance with Hitler and ordered the fascist army to ransack the ghettos. The confinements and deportations began in 1943.

E. .E. O Hungary Widespread Anti-Semitic Riots on University Campuses
1929 C.E. L

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1948  War of 1948

The 1948 Arab-Israeli War, known as the Israeli War of Independence or al-Nakba, 1948-1949, began after the British withdrawal and the declaration of the State of Israel on May 15, 1948.

Arabs had formally rejected the United Nations Partition Plan of November 1947, which proposed establishment of an Arab and a Jewish state in Palestine.

Jewish and Arab militias had begun a campaign to control territory both inside and beyond the partition-designated borders.

Joint Jordanian, Egyptian, Syrian, Lebanese and Iraqi troops invaded Palestine, and fought to destroy the nascent Jewish state. On May 15, 1948, the Arab League Secretary General Abdul Razek Azzam announced the intention to wage "a war of extermination and a momentous massacre which will be spoken of like the Mongolian massacres and the Crusades." (Benny Morris, Righteous Victims p.219) About 2/3 of Palestinian Arabs fled or were expelled by Israeli forces from the territories which came under Jewish control (see Palestinian Exodus); Arabs also expelled Jews from the territories which came under their control. In addition, many Arab countries' Jewish populations fled due to anti-Jewish sentiment and, in some cases (e.g. Iraq) legal oppression (see Immigration to Israel from Arab lands).

About 700,000 Palestinians (estimates vary from 520,000 to 957,000 [1] ( and estimated 600,000 to 900,000 [2] ( Jews became refugees. In a few cases, (e.g. in Morocco) local Arab governments encouraged Jews to stay, and some Jewish leaders (e.g. in Haifa) encouraged Arabs to stay.

Jewish refugees were absorbed by Israel; Palestinian refugees were neglected by most Arab nations, which by some were blamed for the poverty and hatred prevailing in some Palestinian camps, while others blamed Israel for their expulsion. The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East was established to alleviate their condition. The fighting ended with signing of the Rhodes Armistice, but only two states eventually signed a peace agreement with Israel: Egypt (1978) and Jordan (1994).


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15 messages...

A helluwa lot to read masticate and digest ...

SSpatter, SSmitthi, Zglobal the scavanger fish, Petera and King Kong ...

I'm gonna talk to the Powers up-stairs to see if I can get  you some credits for your effort to digest the above....

If you feel constipated after the reading .... natural green tea, only..!!

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