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1348 November 22, RIOTS REACHED BAVARIA AND SWABIA (Germany)
Jews in eighty towns including Augsburg, Munich and Würzburg were attacked.

1348-49 AD THE BLACK PLAGUE (Europe)
One third of Europe's population died from the Black Death (Bubonic plague). Though many Jews were among the dead, they were accused by local church leaders and tortured to confess that they had poisoned the wells (Chillon) in order to kill Christians. During the next few years - despite the protests of Pope Clement VI - over 60 large and 150 small Jewish communities were destroyed as a direct result of these accusations. These included untold atrocities in cities such as Basel, Cologne, Strasbourg, Worms, Zurich and others. The plague, which originated in China, was spread for the most part by rats which came aboard ships from Asia to European ports. It is estimated that 25 million people perished within three years.

1349 January 16, BASEL
The Guilds brought up charges against the Jews accusing them of poisoning the wells. Despite an attempted defence by the town council, 600 Jews together with the Rabbi were burned to death. One hundred and forty children were taken from their parents and forcible baptized ending a Jewish presence in the town.

1349 January 22, SPEYER (Germany)
The Jewish community was destroyed. The Jewish inhabitants were either killed, converted or fled to Heidelberg. All their property - including the Jewish cemetery - was confiscated.

1349 January-August, ATROCITIES (Germany)
Spread from city to city up the Rhine; cities included Strasbourg, Worms and Cologne.

1349  Heilbronn (Germany) unconfirmed but not improbable.

1349 February 22, ZURICH (Switzerland)
Although the town council initially tried to protect the Jews of the town, they were forced to give in to the mob, resulting in the murder of many of the Jewish inhabitants.

1349 March 21, ERFURT (Germany)
After a mob marched into the Jewish quarter carrying a flag with a cross, the Jews tried to defend themselves. Over a hundred Jews were killed and much of the ghetto burned.

1349 August 23, COLOGNE (Germany)
As the riots began, many of the residents took shelter in the synagogue. When it was attacked as well, the Jews inside set fire to it rather then be taken by the mob outside. Most of those who had not taken refuge in the synagogue were also murdered. Their property was confiscated by the church, with the municipality and the Count of Juelich each fighting over their share.

1349 August 24, MAYENCE [ Mainz ] AND BRESLAU (Germany)
Some ten thousand Jews were massacred during the riots in two of the largest communities of Germany.

1349 September 29, ALBERT II (Austria)
After an attack on the Jews at Krems, he forcibly ended the riots. Austria was thus one of the few places of relative security in Europe.

1349  Hungary. See Hungary 1349

Alienated all rights of Jews. This led to the common practice of expelling the Jews from one district and, due to financial considerations, accepting them in another.

A defeat by the English at Poitiers led to a financial crisis that prompted re-admittance of Jewish financiers and Jews to France, this time for 70 years.

1388 Strasbourg
See Strasbourg 1388 This allegedly authoritative source surveys in detail the history and forms of anti-Semitism over the past 2,000 years. It uses a list of events which has been lifted from a Christian source complete with spelling mistakes.

1389 Czechoslovakia 3000 Jews are murdered in Prague
Jewish boys annoyed a priest which caused major retaliation. The trigger was trivial. The resentment was major.

1394  Germany unconfirmed

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1394  France and French Domains, by King Charles VI of France. He was a lunatic.

1397 Jewish moneylenders are encouraged to settle in Florence.  See Italy and the Jews - Timeline

Anti-Jewish measures in Italy lead to establishment of Italian Jewish synods to ensure centralized leadership of community; synods are convened throughout 15th and 16th centuries to solve special problems    See Italy and the Jews - Timeline

Anti-Jewish preaching of Franciscans prompts delegates from Jewish communities to meet in Bologna and Forli to respond. Meeting result in pro-Jewish bulls by Pope Martin (1417-1431 —), who tries to control the Franciscans’ preaching.   See Italy and the Jews - Timeline

1422   Austria unconfirmed but Vienna and Linz are for 1421. See Department for Jewish Zionist Education

1424  Freibourg unconfirmed but 1428 is. See Department for Jewish Zionist Education

1424  Zurich unconfirmed but 1436 is. See Department for Jewish Zionist Education

1426 Cologne unconfirmed but 1424 is. See Department for Jewish Zionist Education

1429 Pope Martin
enacts bull providing a sweeping measure of protection of the Jews, which remains largely unenforced. See Italy and the Jews - Timeline

1432  Savory unconfirmed.

1437 Cosimo de Medici, the Elder,
grants the first formal charter to the Jews of Florence for money lending    See Italy and the Jews - Timeline

1438  Mainz unconfirmed

1439  Augsburg see The Department for Jewish Zionist Education

1442 Pope Eugenius IV
issues an edict prohibiting: building of synagogues, money-lending for interest, holding public office, testifying against Christians. Jews respond by meeting in Tivoli and Ravenna, with no success; causes them to move to other areas of Italy   See Italy and the Jews - Timeline

1446 Bavaria unconfirmed

1453  Franconis [ Franconia? ] unconfirmed.

1453  Breslau See The Department for Jewish Zionist Education

1454  Würzburg [ Bavaria ] unconfirmed.

The Department for Jewish Zionist Education says:-
In the wake of the Black Death, many of the Jews of Hungary were expelled. A general expulsion order attempted to get rid of the rest in 1360. Four years later the order was rescinded. This pattern of expelling the Jews and sometimes allowing their re-entry was repeated in these years for many Jewish communities in Europe. To give just a partial list of the localities which expelled their Jews over the next century and a half, the list includes; Strasbourg (1381), Lucerne (1384), Berne (1408 and again in 1427), Vienna (1421), Linz (1421) Cologne (1424), Freibourg (1428), Zurich (1436), Augsburg (1439), Bavaria (1442 and 1450), Moravia (1421 and 1454), Breslau (1453), Trent (1475), Peruggia (1485), Gubbio (1486), Geneva (1490), Ravenna (1491) and Campo San Pietro (1492).

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1459 Fra Mauro (a converted Jew) prepares a map placing Jerusalem at the centre of the world, a practice which was discontinued by the late Renaissance.   See Italy and the Jews - Timeline

1462  Establishment of "Monti di pieta," pity funds, by Franciscans to offer interest-free loans in direct competition with Jewish money-lenders; Jews lose business, and are therefore subject to expulsion  See Italy and the Jews - Timeline

1485  Vincenza (Italy) unconfirmed.

31 March, 1492 • Ferdinand and Isabella's Edict Against Spanish Jews
Separation not having worked, the monarchs gave the Jews until July 31st to sell their goods and leave the country. They were forbidden to carry gold or silver out of the kingdom. Worse, although signed in March, the edict was not publicly announced until the end of April, so the Jews actually had only three months to convert their property to trade goods.
In July 1492, the exodus began. When Columbus left on his famous voyage in August, he could not use the port of Cadiz because of the large numbers of Jews waiting to board ships in the harbour. Many Jews of Castile went to Portugal, where they were forced to pay a ransom to remain. Others went to Italy or the northern coast of Africa. Wherever they went, they were robbed.
Spain's economy paid for its mistreatment of the Jews: many had been skilled craftsmen. Sultan Bajazet of Turkey warmly welcomed those who escaped to his country. "How can you call Ferdinand of Aragon a wise king--the same Ferdinand who impoverished his own land and enriched ours?" he asked. He employed the Jew in making weapons to fight against Europe.

1491  Jews of Ravenna expelled,
synagogues destroyed; instigated by Franciscan and Dominican friars whose goal was expulsion of all Jews from Italy – Perugia-1485, Gubbio-1486. . .   See Italy and the Jews - Timeline

1492 — Sicily and Sardinia,
as territories ruled by Spain, expel their Jews. The majority of refugees from the Spanish expulsion head for Portugal and Italy, specifically Venice, Leghorn and Rome, where they are protected by the pope.   See Italy and the Jews - Timeline

1494 — France invades Italy;
Jews of Florence and Tuscany expelled when the Medici fall from power; they return in 1513 — and bring the Jews back with them.   See Italy and the Jews - Timeline

1495 — Charles VIII of France
occupies Kingdom of Naples, bringing new persecution against the Jews, many of whom went there as refugees from Spain. Jews will be expelled from Naples in 1510 —and again in 1541.   See Italy and the Jews - Timeline

1495 Lithuania
In 1454 anti-Jewish riots flared up in Wroclaw and other Silesian cities. They were inspired by the papal envoy, the Franciscan friar John of Capistrano. Though his main aim was to instigate a popular rebellion against the Hussites, he also carried out a ruthless campaign against the Jews whom he accused of profaning the Christian religion. As a result of Capistrano's endeavours, Jews were banished from Lower Silesia. Shortly after, John of Capistrano, invited to Poland by Zbigniew Olesnicki, conducted a similar campaign in Krakow and several other cities where, however, anti-Jewish unrest took on a much less acute form. Forty years later, in 1495, Jews were ordered out of the centre of Krakow and allowed to settle in the "Jewish town" of Kazimierz. In the same year, Alexander Jagiellon, following the example of Spanish rulers, banished the Jews from Lithuania. For several years they took shelter in Poland until they were allowed back to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1503.

1497 Portugal, racist king kicks the Jews out He was malicious and on the make according to the source. The Jews of course were totally innocent.

1499 Germany unconfirmed.

1506 Apr. 19.
A marrano expresses his doubts about miracle visions at St. Dominics Church in Lisbon, Portugal. The crowd, led by Dominican monks, kills him, then ransacks Jewish houses and slaughter any Jew they could find. The countrymen hear about the massacre and join in. Over 2,000 marranos killed in three days. See History of anti-Semitism

1510 Jews are expelled from Brandenburg, Germany. 38 Jews burned at the stake in Berlin.
See History of anti-Semitism

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1510  Naples Jews will be expelled from Naples in 1510 —and again in 1541.  Were they using the wrong deodorant? See Italy and the Jews - Timeline

1514  Strasbourg unconfirmed.

1516 The first ghetto in Europe established in Venice.  See History of anti-Semitism

1519  Regensburg Martin Luther acts. See document Neupfarrplatz

1519  Ratisbon [ Regensburg in German ], Germany.

1519-1546 Martin Luther leads Protestant Reformation and challenges the doctrine of servitus Judaeorum "
... to deal kindly with the Jews and to instruct them to come over to us". Later in pamphlet About the Jews and Their Lies, 1544 he calls to "Set their synagogues on fire... Their homes should be likewise broken down... Their rabbis must be forbidden to teach under the threat of death". His sermon Admonition against the Jews, 1546 contains accusations of ritual murder, black magic, and poisoning of wells. Luther recognized no obligation to protect the Jews. See History of anti-Semitism

1527  Florence unconfirmed.

1528 Three judaizers burned at the stake in the first auto da fe in Mexico City. See History of anti-Semitism

1535 After Spanish troops capture Tunis, all the local Jews are sold into slavery. See History of anti-Semitism

1540 Naples - 1541 Charles VIII of France
occupies Kingdom of Naples in 1495, bringing new persecution against the Jews, many of whom went there as refugees from Spain. Jews will be expelled from Naples in 1510 —and again in 1541.   See Italy and the Jews - Timeline  but they were readmitted in 1735.

1542  Bohemia unconfirmed.

1547 Ivan the Terrible
becomes ruler of Russia and refuses to allow Jews to live in or even enter his kingdom because they "bring about great evil" (quoting his response to request by Polish king Sigismund). See History of anti-Semitism

1550   2 April 1550 Jews are expelled from Genoa

1550 Dr. Joseph Hacohen is chased out of Genoa for practicing medicine, and soon after, all the Jews are expelled. See History of anti-Semitism

1551  Bavaria unconfirmed.

1551  Pesaro 1555(?) unconfirmed.

1553 Italy, Pope orders burning of Talmud  
Convinced [ wrongly?  the source isn't saying ] that the Talmud attacks Christianity, Pope Julius III burns thousands of volumes of Talmud in Rome, Bologna, Ferrara,Venice and Mantua.

1554 Italian Jews
in Ferrara to discuss the banning of the Talmud. They adopt a rabbinic ordinance, recognized by the government, which establishes an internal control over the printing of Hebrew books. Similar rules are later adopted in Padua, Poland, Frankfurt and Amsterdam.

1554 Cornelio da Montalcino,
a Franciscan Friar who converted to Judaism, is burned alive in Rome. See History of anti-Semitism

1555 In Papal Bull Cum Nimis Absurdum,
Pope Paul IV writes: "It appears utterly absurd and impermissible that the Jews, whom God has condemned to eternal slavery for their guilt, should enjoy our Christian love." He renews anti-Jewish legislation and installs a locked nightly
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ghetto in Rome. The Bull also forces Jewish males to wear a yellow hat, females - yellow kerchief. Owning real estate or practicing medicine on Christians is forbidden. It also limits Jewish communities to only one synagogue. The Talmud is confiscated and publicly burned in Rome on Rosh Hashanah, starting a wave of Talmud burning throughout Italy. See History of anti-Semitism

1555 Pope Paul IV
issues a bull, cum nimis absurdum, bringing religious and economic restrictions to the papal lands, requiring all Jews to live in ghettos and restricting economic relations with Christians to the selling of used clothes.

1556 Dona Gracia Mendes
responding to persecution by Pope Paul IV against the Jews of Ancona, He leads an unsuccessful economic boycott against the port of Ancona favouring trade with Pisaro, which has accepted the Jewish refugees. The plan fails due to internal divisions in the Jewish community over fear of further persecution.

1558 Recanti,
Italy: a baptized Jew Joseph Paul More enters synagogue on Yom Kippur under the protection of Pope Paul IV and tried to preach a conversion sermon. The congregation evicts him. Soon after, the Jews are expelled from Recanti. See History of anti-Semitism

1559 Pope Paul IV
places the Talmud on the list of banned books, Index liborum prohibitorum. Popes Pius IV and Gregory XIII will later permit the printing of the Talmud, but allowing censorship of passages that are deemed insulting to Christianity; therefore, the Talmud is not printed in Italy. The last edition of the Index, 1948, still includes books written by Jews.

1559 12,000 copies of Talmud burned in Milan. See History of anti-Semitism
1559 Austria unconfirmed

1561 Prague unconfirmed.

1563 Feb.
Russian troops take Polotsk from Lithuania, Jews are given ultimatum: embrace Russian Orthodox Church or die. Around 300 Jewish men, women and children were thrown into ice holes of Dvina river. See History of anti-Semitism

1564 Brest-Litovsk:
the son of a wealthy Jewish tax collector is accused of killing the family's Christian servant for ritual purposes. He is tortured and executed in line with the law. King Sigismund Augustus of Poland forbade future charges of ritual murder, calling them groundless. See History of anti-Semitism

1567   Würzburg [ Bavaria ]  unconfirmed.

1567  Genoese Republic See

1569 All Papal Territory except Rome and Ancona. See Jews In Italy

Pope Pius V expels the Jews from the papal states, with the exception of Ancona and Rome.

Establishment of the ghetto in Florence, locking in 86 Jews at night. The ghetto was established by Cosimo under pressure from the Church, in exchange for his receiving the title of Grand Duke of Tuscany. In 1571, the ghetto swells to 500, as Jews from all over the Grand Duchy of Tuscany are compelled to live within the ghetto walls.

The Venetian government, at war with Turkey, resolves to expel all Jews from Venice and the Adriatic Islands. Though the expulsion is not enforced, it reflects the impact of the Counter-Reformation and the papal willingness to sacrifice local commercial interests to doctrinal necessities.

Brandenburg unconfirmed. This hostile source mentions a Jewish atrocity there, It gives sources but only in book form.

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1582  Netherlands
1580 - 1620 The Republic of the Seven Netherlands (Holland) became very tolerant of Jews. It became a haven for Jews fleeing the Inquisition. There Castellio's arguments for religious freedom won out over the influence of Beza. 1582 When the Netherlands came under the rule of Charles V of Spain, the Jews were expelled.
In the "Scots Confession" ch.18 Reformer John Knox upheld the original Calvinist tenet of intolerance, distinguishing "the Harlot" (Rome) and "the filthy synagogues" from "the true Kirk". 1622 King Christian IV of Denmark and others invited Jews to reside in their lands, when the Thirty Year War raged in central Europe. See

1590 King Philip II of Spain
orders expulsion of Jews from Lombardy. His order is ignored by local authorities until 1597, when 72 Jewish families are forced to exile. See History of anti-Semitism

1593 Brandenburg, Austria unconfirmed

1593 —Pope Clement VIII
expels the Jews living in all the papal states, except Rome, Avignon and Ancona. Jews are invited to settle in Leghorn, the main port of Tuscany , where they are granted full religious liberty and civil rights, by the Medici family, who want to develop the region into a centre of commerce. In 1600, 100 Jews live there, growing to 3,000 in 1689 and 5,000 at the end of the century. It is the only large Italian city without a closed ghetto.

A synagogue is built in the north-western town of Piedmont, in the typical synagogue architecture of the Renaissance, within a courtyard. Concerned for their security, and following the prohibition of Jewish prayer to be heard by Christians, the Jews place the entrance away from the street.

Nine hundred Jews are expelled from Milan, which is now ruled by Spain.

1597 Cremona Unconfirmed.

1597 Pavia Unconfirmed.

1597 Lodi  Unconfirmed.

1597 Nine hundred Jews are expelled from Milan , which is now ruled by Spain. See Italy and the Jews - Timeline

8 January 1598 Jews were expelled from Genoa.

1603 Frei Diogo Da Assumpacao, a partly Jewish friar who embraced Judaism, burned alive in Lisbon.  See History of anti-Semitism

1612 The Hamburg Senate decides to officially allow Jews to live in the city on the condition there is no public worship.  See History of anti-Semitism

1614 Vincent Fettmilch,
who called himself the "new Haman of the Jews", leads a raid on Frankfurt synagogue that turned into an attack which destroyed the whole community.  See History of anti-Semitism

1615 King Louis XIII of France decrees that all Jews must leave the country within one month on pain of death.  See History of anti-Semitism

1615 The Guild led by Dr. Chemnitz, "non-violently" forced the Jews from Worms.  See History of anti-Semitism

1619 Kiev unconfirmed

1619 Shah Abbasi
of the Persian Sufi Dynasty increases persecution against the Jews, forcing many to outwardly practice Islam. Many keep practicing Judaism in secret.  See History of anti-Semitism

1624 Ghetto established in Ferrara, Italy.  See History of anti-Semitism

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1632 King Ladislaus IV of Poland forbids Anti-Semitic print-outs.  See History of anti-Semitism

The Ukrainian Cossacks lead by Bohdan Chmielnicki massacre about 100,000 Jews and similar number of Polish nobles, 300 Jewish communities destroyed.  See History of anti-Semitism

1654 Little Russia  Twenty-three Jewish refugees from Brazil settle in New Amsterdam, forming the nucleus of what would be the largest urban Jewish community in history, the Jewish community of New York City.

1655 Oliver Cromwell, proto-communist readmits Jews to England.  See History of anti-Semitism

1656  Lithuania unconfirmed

1664 May. Jews of Lvov
ghetto organize self-defence against impending assault by students of Jesuit seminary and Cathedral school. The militia sent by the officials to restore order, instead joined the attackers. About 100 Jews killed.  See History of anti-Semitism

1669  Oran (North Africa) unconfirmed

1670 Vienna, by Emperor Leopold I. They were blamed for the fire in the Vienna Hofburg. See Habsburg Dynasty  See also  History of anti-Semitism

Pope Innocent XII abolishes Jewish loan-banks in Rome. In 1683, he extends the ban to Ferrara and other Jewish ghettos under his authority. Prohibited from shop keeping and most trades and crafts, the Roman Jewish community shrinks, while the Jews of Northern Italy begin entering commerce and industry.  See Italy and the Jews - Timeline

1683  French Possessions in America, by King Louis XIV unconfirmed

1711 Johann Andreas Eisenmenger
writes his Entdecktes Judenthum ("Judaism Unmasked"), a work denouncing Judaism and which had a formative influence on modern anti-Semitic polemics.  See History of anti-Semitism

1712  Sandomir [ aka Sandomierz ] Blood libel in Sandomierz and expulsion of the town's Jews.  See History of anti-Semitism

1727 Russia  Edict of Catherine I of Russia:
"The Jews... who are found in Ukraine and in other Russian provinces are to be expelled at once beyond the frontiers of Russia."  See History of anti-Semitism

1734-1736 The Haidamaks, paramilitary bands in Polish Ukraine, attack Jews.   See History of anti-Semitism

1735  Italy Jews forced to choose between fines or public beatings

1738 Württemberg
KARL ALEXANDER (1733-1737) was Catholic, in contrast to the Lutheran estates.... Karl Alexander used the services of Jewish banker SÜSS OPPENHEIMER, who introduced MERCANTILIST POLICY and made enemies in the commissions. After the death of Karl Alexander he was arrested, sentenced in a show trial and executed (1738). No mention of expulsions but not unlikely.

1739 Little Russia 1740(?) unconfirmed

1740 Jews and Huguenots get to be citizens in England, then again in 1753 [ see Wikipedia ]

1742 Dec.
Elizabeth of Russia issues a decree of expulsion of all the Jews out of Russian Empire. Her resolution to the Senate's appeal regarding harm to the trade: "I
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