Author: hly_2010

专题翻译Bully(2) [Copy link] 中文

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Post time 2010-1-12 09:18:08 |Display all floors
Hierarchical bullying, peer bullying, upward bullying
等级欺负、同辈欺负、向上欺负

The majority of cases of workplace bullying reported to the UK National Workplace Bullying Advice Line and Bully OnLine involve an individual being bullied by their manager, and these account for around 75% of cases. Around a quarter of cases involve bullying and harassment by peers (often with the collusion of a manager either by proactive involvement or by the manager refusing to take action). A small number of cases (around 1-2%) involve the bullying of a manager by a subordinate. Serial bullies like to tap into hierarchical power, but they also generate their own power by simply choosing to bully with impunity and justifying or denying their behaviour with rationalisation, manipulation, deception or lying.

  报告给英国全国职场反欺负建议热线及欺负在线的职场欺负行为案例多数是涉及的个体被他们的经理欺负;这大约占到了75%。大约四分之一的案例涉及被同辈欺负和骚扰(经常是与一位经理传统,或通过先发参与,或通过经理拒绝采取行动来进行)。有少数案例(大约1-2%)涉及一位经理被下属欺负。连环欺负者喜欢利用等级权利,可是他们还会通过简单地选择去用赦免权,或者合理化、操纵、欺骗或撒谎来正当化或否认他们的行为,从而产生出自己的权利。

In a case of bullying of a manager by a subordinate, it's my view that as bullying is a form of violence (at the psychological and emotional lever rather than the physical) it's the responsibility of the employer, not the individual manager, to deal with violence at work.

  在经理人被一位下属欺负的一个情况下,我认为,由于欺负行为是一种暴力形式(在心理和情感层面上而不是从身体上),责任在于雇主,而不在于单个的经理人,来处理工作中的暴力。



What is bullying?
什么是欺负行为?


People who are bullied find that they are:
被欺负的人们发现自己

•        constantly criticised and subjected to destructive criticism (often euphemistically called constructive criticism, which is an oxymoron) - explanations and proof of achievement are ridiculed, overruled, dismissed or ignored
不停地受到批评,受到破坏性批评(经常被委婉地称之为建设性的批评,那是一个矛盾说辞)- 成绩的解释和证据被取笑、推翻、打法或忽略
•        forever subject to nit-picking and trivial fault-finding (the triviality is the giveaway)
永远遭受挑刺,琐碎的挑错误(琐碎性是暴露之处)
•        undermined, especially in front of others; false concerns are raised, or doubts are expressed over a person's performance or standard of work - however, the doubts lack substantive and quantifiable evidence, for they are only the bully's unreliable opinion and are for control, not performance enhancement
受到削弱,尤其在别人的面前,对于一个人的表现或工作水平做出了虚假的关心,或者怀疑--然而,怀疑缺乏实质的、可量化的证据,因为它们仅仅是欺负者的不可靠观点,是为了控制,而不是提高表现
•        overruled, ignored, sidelined, marginalised, ostracised
受到驳斥,忽视、排挤、边缘化、受到排斥
•        isolated and excluded from what's happening (this makes people more vulnerable and easier to control and subjugate)
被孤立、排除正在发生事情之外(这会使人们更脆弱,更容易来进行控制和制伏)
•        singled out and treated differently (for example everyone else can have long lunch breaks but if they are one minute late it's a disciplinary offence)
被单独提出来,给予不同的待遇(例如,别人都有长时间午餐时间,可是如果他们晚了一分钟,就是违反纪律)
•        belittled, degraded, demeaned, ridiculed, patronised, subject to disparaging remarks
被小看、被降低身份、被贬损、被嘲弄、被屈尊、受到了贬低之言。
•        regularly the target of offensive language, personal remarks, or inappropriate bad language
不停地成为了攻击语言、针对个人评论、或不当脏话的目标,
•        the target of unwanted sexual behaviour
不希望用的性行为的目标
•        threatened, shouted at and humiliated, especially in front of others
被威胁、大喊和羞辱,尤其是在别人的面前
•        taunted and teased where the intention is to embarrass and humiliate
被挑衅和取逗,其中的意图是造成难堪和羞辱
•        set unrealistic goals and deadlines which are unachievable or which are changed without notice or reason or whenever they get near achieving them
设定不切实际的目标和截止日建;它们是无法实现的,或者不通知的情况或没有的理由情况就发生变化,或者,每当快要被完成的时候就被改变。
•        denied information or knowledge necessary for undertaking work and achieving objectives
拒绝给与从事工作,实现目标来说必要信息或知识
•        starved of resources, sometimes whilst others often receive more than they need
夺去资源,有时候别人却获得超出他们所需的资源
•        denied support by their manager and thus find themselves working in a management vacuum
被经理拒绝支持,从此,发现自己工作在一个管理真空下
•        either overloaded with work (this keeps people busy [with no time to tackle bullying] and makes it harder to achieve targets) or have all their work taken away (which is sometimes replaced with inappropriate menial jobs, eg photocopying, filing, making coffee)
要么工作过多(这让人们忙个不停[没有时间去应对欺负行为],让目标更加难以实现)或者,把所有的工作都拿走(有时候是由一些不合适的,没技术的工作取代,例如:复印、整理文档、煮咖啡)
•        have their responsibility increased but their authority removed
他们的责任增加了,权威被移除了
•        have their work plagiarised, stolen and copied - the bully then presents their target's work (eg to senior management) as their own
他们的工作被剽窃、盗取和复制-欺负者然后用他们的目标人的工作作为自己的来(例如向管理层)提交。
•        are given the silent treatment: the bully refuses to communicate and avoids eye contact (always an indicator of an abusive relationship); often instructions are received only via email, memos, or a succession of yellow stickies or post-it notes
受到静默对待:欺负者拒绝交流,回避目光接触(往往是一个表示虐待型关系的指示);往往通过电子邮件、备忘录或一连串的黄色贴纸、粘贴便笺来受到指示。
•        subject to excessive monitoring, supervision, micro-management, recording, snooping etc
受到过多的监视、监督、微型管理、录音、秘密调查等等
•        the subject of written complaints by other members of staff (most of whom have been coe rced into fabricating allegations - the complaints are trivial, often bizarre ["He looked at me in a funny way"] and often bear striking similarity to each other, suggesting a common origin)
成为其他员工书面投诉的目标(多数人被胁迫伪造证据-投诉是琐碎,往往古怪[“他用一个滑稽的方式看着我”],而且经常彼此惊人相似,说明处于同一个源头)
•        forced to work long hours, often without remuneration and under threat of dismissal
被强迫长时间工作,往往是没有报酬的,而且受到了解雇的威胁
•        find requests for leave have unacceptable and unnecessary conditions attached, sometimes overturning previous approval. especially if the person has taken action to address bullying in the meantime
发现对休假的请求被附加了令人不可接受和不必要的条款,有时候,它们推翻了之前的准许,如果此人采取了行动要同时解决欺负的问题时尤为如此。
•        denied annual leave, sickness leave, or - especially - compassionate leave
年假、病假,或,特别是特殊病丧假被拒绝
•        when on leave, are harassed by calls at home or on holiday, often at unsocial hours
休假时,在家或度假时被骚扰,往往是在非正常工作时间段。
•        receive unpleasant or threatening calls or are harassed with intimidating memos, notes or emails with no verbal communication, immediately prior to weekends and holidays (eg 4pm Friday or Christmas Eve - often these are hand-delivered)
就在周末和节日之前,收到令人不愉快或具有威胁性的电话,或者受到威胁性的备忘录、笔记或电子邮件的骚扰,(例如:周五下午4点,或圣诞前夕 - 往往这些都是。。 )
•        do not have a clear job description, or have one that is exceedingly long or vague; the bully often deliberately makes the person's role unclear
没有一个清晰的工作内容描述,或者,它过于冗长、模糊,欺负者经常有意地让此人的工作角色不清晰
•        are invited to "informal" meetings which turn out to be disciplinary hearings
被邀请参加“非正式”会议,结果却成了纪律听证会。
•        are denied representation at meetings, often under threat of further disciplinary action; sometimes the bully abuses their position of power to exclude any representative who is competent to deal with bullying
被拒绝在会议上获得代表,有时候,欺负者滥用权利位置,排除任何有能力来处理欺负行为的代表。
•        encouraged to feel guilty, and to believe they're always the one at fault
受鼓励感到愧疚,且认为自己永远都是错的一方。
•        subjected to unwarranted and unjustified verbal or written warnings
受到无根据、无理的口头或书面警告
•        facing unjustified disciplinary action on trivial or specious or false charges
因为琐碎、或似是而非、或虚假的指控而受到无理的纪律处分。
•        facing dismissal on fabricated charges or flimsy excuses, often using a trivial incident from months or years previously
由于捏造出的指控或薄弱的借口而面临开除,经常利用数月或数年前的一件小事情
•        coerced into reluctant resignation, enforced redundancy, early or ill-health retirement
被强迫不情愿地辞职、裁员、早退或病退
•        denial of the right to earn your livelihood including preventing you getting another job, usually with a bad or misleading reference
拒绝谋生的权利,包括阻止你获得另一份工作,通常是提供不好的或具有误导的前雇主推荐信。
Happy 牛 Year~!

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Post time 2010-1-12 09:19:09 |Display all floors
A favourite tactic of bullies which helps them evade detection is to undertake a "reorganisation" at regular intervals. This has several advantages:

  作为欺负者帮助他们逃避被发现的最喜欢手段是隔一段时间进行”重组”。这有几个好处:


•        anyone whose face doesn't fit can be organised out through downsizing (redundancy) or transfer
任何不适合的面孔的可以通过减员(冗余裁减)或调换工作组织除掉
•        ditto anyone who challenges the reorganisation
对任何一位对重组发起挑战的人同上
•        ditto, their job can be "regraded" or "redefined" to the person's disadvantage
同上,他们的工作可能被“重新定位”或“重新定义"造成此人处于劣势
•        each reorganisation is a smokescreen for the bully's dysfunctional behaviour - everyone is so busy coping with the reorganisation (chaos) that the bully's behaviour goes unnoticed
每次重组都是欺负者不正常行为的一个烟幕--每个人都忙着应付重组(混乱),以至于欺负者的行为得以淹没逃脱。
•        the bully can always claim to be reorganising in the name of "efficiency" and therefore be perceived by those above as a strong manager
欺负者总能以”效率“的名义来重组,因此被那些上级看成是一个强干的经理

However, there is never any cost-benefit justification to the reorganisation - no figures before and no figures after to prove the reorganisation has brought benefits.

然而,对这个重组,没有任何成本-收益的理由- 之前没有数据,之后也没有数据证明重组带来过好处。
Happy 牛 Year~!

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Post time 2010-1-12 09:20:13 |Display all floors
Why me?
为何是我?


There are many reasons how and why bullies target others, and the reasons are consistent between cases. There are many myths and stereotypes such as "victims are weak" which I deconstruct on my myths page. Bullying often repeats because the reasons that bullies target their victims don't change, hence this section also answers the questions "Why do I keep getting bullied" and "Why do bullies continue to bully me?".

为什么欺负者针对别人有许多原因,各个情况下原因都是一致的。存在着很多如:“受害者是软弱的人”的误解和习惯形象,我在“误解网页”(链接)上进行了拆解。欺负行为经常重复的原因是欺负者瞄准他们受害者的原因未变,因此这一部分还回答了这些问题:“为什么我不断被欺负”,以及“为什么欺负者继续来欺负我?”


1) How do bullies select their targets?
1) 欺负者如何选择他们的目标?


The bully selects their target using the following criteria:
欺负者用下面的标准选择目标:
•        bullies are predatory and opportunistic - you just happen to be in the wrong place at the wrong time; this is always the main reason - investigation will reveal a string of predecessors, and you will have a string of successors
欺负者具有掠夺性和机会主义者 - 你只不过恰巧在错误的时间处于错误的地点,这永远都是主要原因 - 调查将会揭示的是一系列的前者,而且你将有一批的后继者。
•        being good at your job, often excelling
擅长于你的工作,经常是表现卓越
•        being popular with people (colleagues, customers, clients, pupils, parents, patients, etc)
受到人们的欢迎(同事、顾客、客户、学生、家长、病人等等)
•        more than anything else, the bully fears exposure of his/her inadequacy and incompetence; your presence, popularity and competence unknowingly and unwittingly fuel that fear
最重要的是,欺负者害怕暴露他/她自己的不足和无能,你的出现、受欢迎度和能力未知觉地和无心地助长了那个恐惧
•        being the expert and the person to whom others come for advice, either personal or professional (ie you get more attention than the bully)
成为了一位专家,一位别人来寻求个人或是职业方面建议的人(例如:你获得了比欺负者更多的注意力)
•        having a well-defined set of values which you are unwilling to compromise
有一套定义完善的你不愿意妥协的价值观
•        having a strong sense of integrity (bullies despise integrity, for they have none, and seem compelled to destroy anyone who has integrity)
有强烈的正直心(欺负者鄙视正直心,因为他们丝毫也没有,而且似乎有破坏任何有正直心人的冲动)
•        having at least one vulnerability that can be exploited
至少有一个可以被利用的弱点
•        being too old or too expensive (usually both)
年纪太大,或者,可以。。(通常两者皆有)
•        refusing to join an established clique
拒绝加入一个建立起的派系
•        showing independence of thought or deed
表现出思考或行为上的独立性
•        refusing to become a corporate clone and drone
拒绝成为一个企业克隆人和。。寄生虫。。


Jealousy (of relationships and perceived exclusion therefrom) and envy (of talents, abilities, circumstances or possessions) are strong motivators of bullying.

(对关系和由此产生的感知中排斥的)妒忌和(对才华、环境或拥有物的)忌妒是欺负的强烈动力因素。


2) Events that trigger bullying
触发欺负的事件


Bullying starts after one of these events:
欺负行在下述某个事件后开始:
•        the previous target leaves 前一个欺负的目标离开
•        there's a reorganisation 进行一次重组
•        a new manager is appointed 有一位新经理任命
•        your performance unwittingly highlights, draws attention to, exposes or invites unfavourable comparison with the bully's lack of performance (the harder you work to address the bully's claims of underperformance, the more insecure and unstable the bully becomes)
你的表现无心地表现显著,吸引了注意力,或者暴露了或招引了和欺负者的没有水平进行不利比较(你越是努力工作来应对欺负者所说低水平表现的话,欺负者就愈加加感到不安全和不稳定)
•        you may have unwittingly become the focus of attention whereas before the bully was the centre of attention (this often occurs with female bullies) - most bullies are emotionally immature and thus crave attention
你也许无心地成为了注意力的焦点;而在这之前,欺负者是注意力的中心(这往往在女性欺负者身上出现)- 多数欺负者在情绪上不成熟,从此渴求注意力
•        obvious displays of affection, respect or trust from co-workers
公然有来自同事们表达出的喜爱、尊重和信任。
•        refusing to obey an order which violates rules, regulations, procedures, or is illegal
拒绝服从违反了规定、条例、流程或非法的命令。
•        standing up for a colleague who is being bullied - this ensures you will be next; sometimes the bully drops their current target and turns their attention to you immediately
为一个受欺负的同事挺身而出 -  这一定会让你将成为下一个;有时候,这个欺负者放弃当前的目标,立刻将他们的注意力转移到你的身上
•        blowing the whistle on incompetence, malpractice, fraud, illegality, breaches of procedure, breaches of health & safety regulations etc
对无能、行为过失、。。、欺诈、非法性、触犯流程、触犯健康及安全规定等等告密。
•        undertaking trade union duties
执行工会职责
•        suffering illness or injury, whether work related or not
生病或受伤,不论和工作有关与否
•        challenging the status quo, especially unwittingly
挑战现状,尤其是无意之中
•        gaining recognition for your achievements, eg winning an award or being publicly recognised
因你的成绩,例如:赢得奖励或公开认可而获得了认可
•        gaining promotion
获得晋生


3) Personal qualities that bullies find irresistible
令欺负者感到难以抗拒的个人品质


Targets of bullying usually have these qualities:
欺负行为的目标通常有这些品质:
•        popularity (this stimulates jealousy in the less-than-popular bully)
受欢迎度(这会激发对不那么受欢迎的欺负者的妒忌。。)
•        competence (this stimulates envy in the less-than-competent bully)
能力(这回激发不那么有能力欺负者的。。)
•        intelligence and intellect
智力和知识。
•        honesty and integrity (which bullies despise)
诚实和正直心(这都是欺负者所鄙视的)
•        you're trustworthy, trusting, conscientious, loyal and dependable
值得信任、具有信任力、有良心、忠诚和可靠
•        a well-developed integrity which you're unwilling to compromise
一个很好培养起来,不愿意去妥协的正直心
•        you're always willing to go that extra mile and expect others to do the same
总愿意做多尽一份努力,希望别人一样
•        successful, tenacious, determined, courageous, having fortitude
成功、有毅力、、坚决、有勇气、毅力。。。
•        a sense of humour, including displays of quick-wittedness
有幽默感,包括展示头脑敏捷
•        imaginative, creative, innovative
有想象力、创造力、创新
•        idealistic, optimistic, always working for improvement and betterment of self, family, the employer, and the world
理想主义、乐观主义、总是为了对自身、家庭、雇主及世界的提高和改善而努力
•        ability to master new skills
有能力掌握新技能
•        ability to think long term and to see the bigger picture
有能力做长远打算,看到大局
•        sensitivity (this is a constellation of values to be cherished including empathy, concern for others, respect, tolerance etc)
敏感(包括,移情、关心别人、尊重、容忍等在内受到珍惜的价值观的。。总汇)
•        slow to anger 不易怒
•        helpful, always willing to share knowledge and experience
有帮助,总愿意分享知识和经验
•        giving and selfless
给与和无私
•        difficulty saying no
难以说不
•        diligent, industrious
勤奋、勤劳。。
•        tolerant
容忍
•        strong sense of honour
强烈的尊严感
•        irrepressible, wanting to tackle and correct injustice wherever you see it
刚正不阿。。希望不论在哪见到不正义都要主持,纠正。
•        an inability to value oneself whilst attributing greater importance and validity to other people's opinions of oneself (eg through tests, exams, appraisals, manager's feedback, etc)
无法总是自己,同时,对别人对自己的看法却赋予更大的重要性和正确性(例如,通过测验,考试,评估,经理的反馈,等等)
•        low propensity to violence (ie you prefer to resolve conflict through dialogue rather than through violence or legal action)
低暴力的倾向(例如,你更愿意通过对话而不是暴力或法律行动来解决冲突)
•        a strong forgiving streak (which the bully exploits and manipulates to dissuade you from taking grievance and legal action)
一个强烈要宽恕的特质(欺负者利用、操纵它来说服你不采取申诉和法律行动)
•        a desire to always think well of others
愿意从好的一方面考虑别人
•        being incorruptible, having high moral standards which you are unwilling to compromise
无法受腐败,有高度的道德标准,你不愿意妥协
•        being unwilling to lower standards
不愿意降低标准
•        a strong well-defined set of values which you are unwilling to compromise or abandon
有一套强健、定义清晰,你不愿意放弃或妥协的价值观
•        high expectations of those in authority and a dislike of incompetent people in positions of power who abuse power
对于在权者抱有很高的期望,对那些在权利位置而滥用职权的无能的人们感到厌恶
•        a tendency to self-deprecation, indecisiveness, deference and approval seeking
有自我贬低、犹豫不决、。。和寻求认同的一种倾向
•        low assertiveness
低主张力
•        a need to feel valued
有感到被重视的需要
•        quick to apologise when accused, even if not guilty (this is a useful technique for defusing an aggressive customer or potential road rage incident)
受指责时,很快地道歉(这对于和解一位侵犯性的顾客或潜在公路暴怒事件是一个有用的技巧)
•        perfectionism
完美主义
•        higher-than-average levels of dependency, naivety and guilt
依赖、幼稚和愧疚感程度要高于一般水平。
•        a strong sense of fair play and a desire to always be reasonable
强烈的公平竞争感,愿意总要讲理的一种渴求
•        high coping skills under stress, especially when the injury to health becomes apparent
在精神压力下很高超的应对水平,尤其当对健康的伤害变得明显
•        a tendency to internalise anger rather than express it
倾向于内化而不是表达出愤怒的
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Post time 2010-1-12 09:21:09 |Display all floors
The typical sequence of events is:
事件典型顺序是:


•        the target is selected using the criteria above, then bullied for months, perhaps years
目标人按照上述标准被选中,然后,被欺负数月,也许数年
•        eventually, the target asserts their right not to be bullied, perhaps by filing a complaint with personnel
最终,目标人主张自己不要被欺负的权利,也许是通过向人事部提起投诉
•        personnel interview the bully, who uses their Jekyll and Hyde nature, compulsive lying, and charm to tell the opposite story (charm has a motive - deception)
人事部和欺负者见面,后者用他们的双重性格,强迫型撒谎,以及魅力来讲述相反的故事(魅力有一个动机 -  欺骗)
•        it's one word against another with no witnesses and no evidence, so personnel take the word of the senior employee - serial bullies excel at deception and evasion of accountability
言辞相对。。,没有目击人,没有证据,所以,人事部门相信了老员工的话 - 连环欺负者善于欺骗和逃避责任
•        the personnel department are hoodwinked by the bully into getting rid of the target - serial bullies are adept at encouraging conflict between people who might otherwise pool negative information about them
人事部被欺负者欺骗,从而将目标人开除 - 连环欺负者善于鼓励本可能对他们。产生。消极信息。。的人们之间的冲突
•        once the target is gone, there's a period of between 2-14 days, then a new target is selected and the process starts again (bullying is an obsessive compulsive behaviour and serial bullies seem unable to survive without a target on to whom they can project their inadequacy and incompetence whilst blaming them for the bully's own failings)
一旦目标人走了,有大约2至14天的一段时间,然后,新的目标被选择,这个过程又一次开始(欺负行为是一个执迷的、强迫型的行为,连环欺负者的存活无法离开让他们能够用来投射自己无能,不足同时怪罪于欺负者自己的失败的目标人)
•        even if the employer realises that they might have sided with the wrong person in the past, they are unlikely to admit that because to do so may incur liability
即便雇主发现他们可能在过去和错误的人站在了一起,可是他们也不可能承认,因为这么做会产生责任
•        if legal action is taken, employers go to increasingly greater lengths to keep targets quiet, usually by offering a small out-of-court settlement with a comprehensive gagging clause
如果采取了法律行动,雇主会不会不断加大努力,让目标人缄口不言,通常是提供一笔庭外费用。。和内容详尽的闭嘴条款。
•        employers are often more frightened of the bully than the target and will go to enormous lengths to avoid having to deal with bully (promotion for the bully is the most common outcome)
雇主往往比目标人更害怕欺负者,会做出极大努力避免处理欺负者(提拔欺负者是最普遍的结果)

Contact us for strategies to counter the serial bully's tactics of deception or how to deal with a gagging clause.

  联系我们,获得对付欺负者欺骗,或如何处理一个闭嘴条款方面的策略

There are many myths, misperceptions and stereotypes that bullies and their supporters, apologists and deniers disingenuously use to hide the facts listed above and to further victimise those targeted; click here for insight to counter these tactics.

  许多欺负者们和他们支持者们、道歉者、矢口否认者们用于掩盖以事实,进一步地使目标人加大受害者程度的误解、错误的观点,和老套形象有很多;点击此处,深入了解来对付这些手法。。。
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Post time 2010-1-12 09:22:26 |Display all floors
What's the difference between bullying and harassment?
欺负和骚扰的区别是什么?


Acts of harassment usually centre around unwanted, offensive and intrusive behaviour with a sexual, racial or physical component. Measures to identify and proscribe acts of harassment derive from the Sex Discrimination Act, the Race Relations Act and the law of assault. More recently, the Disability Discrimination Act (1996), the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act (1994) and the Protection from Harassment Act (1996) have also influenced attitudes towards harassment. Significantly, the Protection from Harassment Act accords emphasis for the first time on the target's perception of the harassment rather than the perpetrator's alleged intent.

  骚扰行为往往围绕在不被希望的、冒犯的和侵犯型的行为,具有性、种族和有形成分。识别和禁止骚扰行为的措施出自性别歧视、种族关系法案及防止攻击法案。最近,残障法案(1996),刑事司法及公共秩序法案(1994)以及防骚扰保护法案(1996)也已经影响到了人们对骚扰的态度。重要的是,防止骚扰法案第一次强调了目标对骚扰的感知,而不是侵犯者所谓的意图。

At present, if one is being bullied and is white, British, able-bodied and the same gender as the bully, one is not currently covered by discrimination law. Ironically, one is thus discriminated against by not qualifying under existing discrimination law. Whilst the DTI like to quote the Protection from Harassment Act as the way to deal with bullying at work, the Act is designed to deal with stalkers, not an incompetent manager criticising a subordinate in a work environment.

  目前,如果一个人被欺负,而且是英国白人、身体健康,和欺负者性别相同,那么目前,这个人没有受到反歧视法律覆盖范围之内。具有讽刺意味的是,从而一个人由于不符合现有反歧视法的资格而遭到了歧视。虽然DTI喜欢引用防骚扰保护法案作为处理欺负行为的途径,但是该法案只在对付跟踪者,而不是在工作环境中批评一位下属的无能的经理。

Under the previous Conservative government, the DTI similarly quoted the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act as the way to deal with bullying. To my knowledge not a single case of workplace bullying has been resolved by either act - or is ever likely to be.

  在之前保守党政府下,DTI类似地引用了刑事司法和公共秩序法来作为对付欺负行为的办法。据我所知,没有一例职场欺负曾--或有可能会被--任何其中一个来解决。

Definitions of harassment and bullying vary and there is much overlap. The essential differences between harassment and workplace bullying are as follows:

  骚扰和欺负的定义不一样,有许多重叠部分。骚扰和职场欺负行为的本质区别在于如下:


Harassment
骚扰

Workplace bullying
职场欺负


(H):Has a strong physical component, eg contact and touch in all its forms, intrusion into personal space and possessions, damage to possessions including a person's work, etc

有一个强大的有形组成部分,例如:所有形式的接触、触摸,个人空间和财务的侵犯,对所有物的破坏,包括:一个人的工作,等等。       

(B):Almost exclusively psychological (eg criticism), may become physical later, especially with male bullies, but almost never with female bullies

几乎专门是心理上的(例如:批评),之后也许成为有形,尤其对男欺负者而言,但对于女性欺负者而言从来不是如此。


(H):Tends to focus on the individual because of what they are (eg female, black, disabled, etc)

往往集中在某个人,因为他们的情况(例如:女性、黑人、残疾,等等)       

(B):Anyone will do, especially if they are competent, popular and vulnerable

任何人,特别是如果他们有能力、受欢迎,和脆弱的话。


(H):Harassment is usually linked to sex, race, prejudice, discrimination, etc

骚扰通常和性、种族、偏见、歧视等等有关。       

(B):Although bullies are deeply prejudiced, sex, race and gender play little part; it's usually discrimination on the basis of competence

虽然欺负者带有很深的偏见,性、种族和性别的角色很少,一般是基于能力上的歧视。


(H):Harassment may consist of a single incident or a few incidents or many incidents

骚扰可能包括有单一事件,或少量,或许多事件。       

(B):Bullying is rarely a single incident and tends to be an accumulation of many small incidents, each of which, when taken in isolation and out of context, seems trivial

欺负极少是单一的事件,而且往往是一个由许多件小事的积累,每个小事件当加以单独,不考虑前后情况时都似乎是琐碎的。



(H):The person who is being harassed knows almost straight away they are being harassed

被骚扰的人几乎立刻知道自己被骚扰了。       

(B):The person being bullied may not realise they are being bullied for weeks or months - until there's a moment of enlightenment

被欺负的人也许数周、数月都不知道自己被欺负了 - 直到出现一次醒悟。


(H):Everyone can recognise harassment, especially if there's an assault, indecent assault or sexual assault

每个人都能认出骚扰,尤其有袭击,猥劣袭击或性袭击。       

(B):Few people recognise bullying

很少人认识欺负。


(H):Harassment often reveals itself through use of recognised offensive vocabulary, eg ("@@@", "coon", etc)

骚扰往往通过认可的侵犯词语暴露出自己,例如:(“婊子”,‘黑人’等等)

(B):Workplace bullying tends to fixate on trivial criticisms and false allegations of underperformance; offensive words rarely appear, although swear words may be used when there are no witnesses

职场欺负易锁定在细琐的批评上,表现能力过低的虚假声称;极少会出现侵犯的词汇,虽然当没有目击者时,会出现辱骂的话。


(H):There's often an element of possession, eg as in stalking

经常有一种拥有元素,例如:在跟踪中。       

(B) : P hase 1 of bullying is control and subjugation; when this fails, phase 2 is elimination of the target

欺负的第一阶段是控制和制伏,当这个阶段失败了,第二阶段是消灭目标。


(H):The harassment almost always has a strong clear focus (eg sex, race, disability)

骚扰几乎总是有一个清晰的焦点(例如:性、种族、残疾)       

(B):The focus is on competence (envy) and popularity (jealousy)

焦点放在了能力(妒忌)上和欢迎度(忌妒)上。


(H):Often the harassment is for peer approval, bravado, macho image etc

往往骚扰是为了获得同辈赞许、喝彩、男子汉形象等等
       
(B):Tends to be secret behind closed doors with no witnesses

往往是私底下秘密没有目击者的时候


(H):Harassment takes place both in and out of work

骚扰在工作中和工作之外都会发生。       

(B):The bullying takes place mostly at work

欺负行为几乎都是在上班发生


(H):The harasser often perceives their target as easy, albeit sometimes a challenge

骚扰者经常感到他们的目标是容易骚扰的人,尽管有时候是一个挑战       

(B):The target is seen as a threat who must first be controlled and subjugated, and if that doesn't work, eliminated

目标被看做一个威胁;必须首先被控制和制伏。如果那不成功,就要被消灭。


(H):Harassment is often domination for superiority

骚扰经常是为了获得优越性的而进行的支配       

(B):Bullying is for control of threat (of exposure of the bully's own inadequacy)

欺负是为了对于威胁,(对于会暴露欺负者自己不足上)的控制


(H):The harasser often lacks self-discipline

骚扰者往往缺乏自律       

(B):The bully is driven by envy (of abilities) and jealousy (of relationships)

欺负者是受到(对能力的)妒忌和(对关系的)嫉妒的驱使。


(H):The harasser often has specific inadequacies (eg sexual)

骚扰者经常有明确的不足(例如:性方面)
       
(B):The bully is inadequate in all areas of interpersonal and behavioural skills

欺负者在人际技能和行为技能所有的方面都不足
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