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36. 优生优育 bear and rear better children
我也很想知道，这些“中国英语专家”都是些什么人，他们是怎样“敲定”这些词组的。比如这里引用的“优生优育”条，按他们的敲定，干脆用 Eugenics 不就行了吗？可是这种社会达尔文主义，是德国法西斯推崇的！
Eugenics, outgrowth of the study of human heredity, aimed at "improving" the genetic quality of the human stock. Although the idea of eugenics is contained in Plato's Republic, the modern concept became prominent during the second half of the 19th century. Underlying this interest in eugenics were two widespread philosophical convictions: a belief in the perfectibility of the human species and a growing faith in science as the most dependable and useful form of knowledge. One 19th-century predecessor of 20th-century eugenics was the group of sociological theories known as social Darwinism. The favorite catchwords of social Darwinism-"struggle for existence" and "survival of the fittest"-when applied to humans in society, suggested that the rich were better endowed than the poor and hence more successful in life. The continual and natural sorting out of "better" and "worse" elements would therefore lead to continued improvement of the species. Modern eugenics has its roots in, but differs from, social Darwinism. The latter was characterized by its laissez-faire attitude, that is, allowing nature to take its course so that the worst elements of society would eventually be eliminated. Modern eugenics, on the other hand, is based on the notion that careful planning through proper breeding is the key to bettering society.
In 1900, with the birth of modern genetics, the undercurrents of interest in "improving" the human race were transformed into an institutionalized movement, now known as the eugenics movement. Historically, the movement had two general aspects: positive eugenics, concentrating on the means to increase the breeding potential of especially "fit" individuals, and negative eugenics, emphasizing the restriction on breeding for particularly "unfit" types. Many organizations devoted to eugenic purposes arose around the world, but the movement was especially strong in England, the United States, and Germany between 1910 and 1940. From the outset the movement was closely associated with a sense of white Anglo-Saxon superiority. Sir Francis Galton (Charles Darwin's cousin), the founder of the English eugenics movement, for example, had been drawn to the study of human heredity and eugenics by his curiosity about what he called the hereditary "genius" in his own family. In the U.S. the dean of the eugenics movement was Charles B. Davenport, who was primarily responsible for organizing the Eugenics Record Office in Cold Spring Harbor, New York.
The eugenics movement was by no means a purely academic exercise. In the U.S. it exerted considerable influence on popular opinion and was reflected in some state and federal legislation. Between 1911 and 1930, 24 states passed sterilization laws aimed at various social "misfits": the mentally retarded, criminals, and the insane. Laws were also passed restricting marriages between members of various racial groups. The key triumph of the U.S. eugenics movement came in 1924, when a coalition of eugenicists and some big-business interests pushed through the Johnson Act, severely limiting immigration into the U.S. from eastern European and Mediterranean countries. Eugenicists claimed that these immigrants were inferior to Anglo-Saxons and were "polluting" the "pure" American bloodstream. By 1925 eugenicists were beginning to be severely criticized for what was seen as their overt racial bias, their subjectivity and bias in the use of evidence, and their lack of scientific rigor. Today eugenics is in disrepute.
Garland E. Allen
"Eugenics," Microsoft? Encarta? Encyclopedia 99.1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.