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In this context, "Straight-A student" is a more appropriate translation for "学霸“.
The term "curve wrecker" has a negative connotation. To understand what this term means, we have to first know what the word "curve" signifies.
A "curve" is a numerical correction determined and applied by a professor to test score of every student in his class so that a majority of them can pass or at least get a better grade in a difficult exam (for major academic subjects like Abstract Algebra, Calculus, Chemistry, Physics, etc).
Let's say a particular exam in Level E Calculus has a perfect score of 100 points with a passing grade of 60. The simplest curve is to take the highest score in class, add enough points for that to make 100, and then add that same number of points to each and every student who took that exam. So, if the highest score in class is 85, the professor may add 15 points for that score to reach 100. Likewise, everyone's test score will also be added 15 points. Those who got a minimum score of 45, originally a failing grade, will now get a passing score.
Therefore, a 学霸 will be deemed as a "curve wrecker" if, for example, he/she got a perfect or very high score in that test, eradicating or narrowing the possibility for others to get bonus points.