1. Happy birthday to you.
[happy birthday]----It is a wish, at a birthday party, that all the events cause happiness.
[all the events]---as the birthday party, the song, the cake, the blowing out of the candle, add phrases like "And many happy retuns"
[to you]-----in relation to you;
[you] ---the birthday person;
Happy birthday to you. ------All the birthday events in connection with you, we wish them cause happiness. does not (semantically) cause happiness in the birthday person
2. [welcome to Beijing]----It means that Beijing is happy to have (= attend on / to go with) you as a guest. 北京欢迎你来做客。
Happy birthday to you.既然LZ说“祝你生日快乐”不对，那么请明确给出你自己的译文啊。这倒很有意思，嘿嘿。
“北京欢迎你来做客”还有一种比较强势的翻译：Beijing Welcomes You. 但这和Welcome to Beijing也没有多大区别。好像在伦敦机场看到过London Welcomes You. 总之Lz这种所谓的分析是在做无用功，一条路走到黑啊？我看其实不是“中国人永远不知道洋人的英文在说啥”，而是LZ不知道自己在干啥......
You are splitting hairs!
Wish you (be) happy in birthday.
[happy]----feeling pleasure and contentment;
In [you be happy], [you] are attributed to [being happy];
Happy birthday to you. ------All the birthday events in connection with you, we wish them cause happiness.
[happy]----causing pleasure and contentment;
Welcome is a very old word in the language, native in Old English.
It comes from two parts:
a) willa, meaning "pleasure, desire, choice"
b) cuma meaning "guest"
So the word has the idea of a desired guest.
In [Welcome to Beijing.], the [welcome] is interj.
So, the sound of [welcome] in the people of Beijing.
[to Beijing]----不是来到北京的意思，而是由北京人所发出的welcome呼喊 啊! 不是吗？？
Welcome to Beijing = You will see this on signs at the International airport. It means that Beijing is happy to have you as a guest.
1. I welcome you (to arrive) at Beijing.
2. You are always welcome at Beijing.