Author: changabula

What the British did to India   [Copy link] 中文

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Post time 2007-2-19 09:32:17 |Display all floors
Famine and Starvation

The British first established a territorial foothold in the Indian subcontinent when Company-funded soldiers commanded by Robert Clive defeated the Bengali Nawab Siraj Ud Daulah at the Battle of Plassey in 1757.

Bengal's riches were expropriated, the East India Company monopolised Bengali trade and Bengal became a British protectorate directly under its rule.

Bengali farmers and craftsmen were obliged to render their labour for minimal remuneration while their collective tax burden increased greatly.

Some believe that as a consequence, the famine of 1769 to 1773 cost the lives of 10 million Bengalis.

A similar catastrophe occurred almost a century later, after Britain had extended its rule across the Indian subcontinent, when 40 million Indians perished from famine.
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Post time 2007-2-19 09:39:59 |Display all floors
Taxes

The British devastation of India was initially achieved by the simple means of taxing it into destitution. In the last year of the last Indian ruler of Bengal, in 1764-5, the land revenue realized was 817,000 pounds sterling. Within a few years of British rule the population had shrunk by one-third through famine, in which ten million perished in 1770 and a third of the country into 揳 jungle inhabited by wild beasts? Nonetheless, by 1771-2 the Bengal revenues had risen to 2,341,000 pounds sterling. As Warren Hastings reported to the Court of the Directors of the East India Company in 1772 with bracing frankness,

    揘otwithstanding the loss of at least one-third of the inhabitants of the province, and the consequent decrease of the cultivation, the net collections of the year 1771 exceeded even those of 1768?It was naturally to be expected that the diminution of the revenue should have kept an equal pace with the other consequences of so great a calamity. That it did not was owing to its being violently kept up to its former standard?

The British destroyed the old manufacturing towns and the economy of the villages. In Palme Dutt抯 words, 揟he millions of ruined artisans and craftsmen, spinners, weavers, potters, smelters, smiths, alike from the towns and the villages, had no alternative save to crowd into agriculture?.. India was 揻orced to the status of agricultural colony of British manufacturing capitalism? whose ideologues then invoked Malthus to  explain India抯 degraded condition.

  1. http://www.counterpunch.org/cockburn08062005.html
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Post time 2007-2-19 09:46:05 |Display all floors
Poverty

In an early chapter Palme Dutt cites admiring travelers such as Tavernier, traveling around India in the seventeenth century, remarking that 揺ven in the smallest villages rice, flour, butter, milk, beans and other vegetables, sugar and other sweetmeats, dry and liquid, can be procured in abundance?

Many travelers at the time extolled Bengal as marvelous in the abundance of its resources, the advanced nature of its crafts.

By the 1920s, after nearly two centuries of British rule, India was a byword for the vast abyss of its all-pervading poverty.

揟he average Indian income? wrote two economists in 1924, 搃s just enough either to feed two men in every three of the population, or give them all two in place of every three meals they need, on condition they all consent to go naked, liver out of doors all the year round, have no amusement or recreation, and want nothing else but food, and that the lowest, the coarsest, the least nutritious?

  1. http://www.counterpunch.org/cockburn08062005.html
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Post time 2007-2-19 10:59:52 |Display all floors
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Post time 2007-2-19 12:12:34 |Display all floors
Originally posted by emucentral at 2007-2-19 05:53
That report suggests that it is in the interests of non Chinese in the Asian region, that Chinese people have their opinions and actions suppressed by an authoritarian Chinese government....


Which of our neighbors ever condemned and asked us to 'demobcratize'? Just several brainwashed running dogs that believe in media funded by VOA and an ugly nation declaring he's a sheriff. What kind of suppression that they suffered that make FDI increasing year by year?

I am interested to hear, Northwest, that you hold the welfare of everyone outside China in higher regard, than the interests of your own brothers and sisters.


What make you think like that? You don't even bother to see today's China in making huge improvement. GDP increasing and percapita consumption reach new high level. Hundreds of millions elevated from poverty.

But of course there' 'outsiders' make money of this. A US$ 12.00 Barbie doll in a US Wal Mart was only more than US$1 when they leave the factory in mainland China. It's the investors and Wal mart earn the profit most from the gap, should we shoot them?
Sacrifice has to be made for development, and that's the fact of how our migrant workers contribute to China's development with relatively low wages.

You see how the Phillipines, your champion of democracy make it? They export maids to Hongkong and Taiwan administrative region, but they asked ridiculous demand to treat the workers as 'their' higher standars which based on carbon copy of US constitution.
Hongkong and Taiwan administration simply turn to Indonesian and Vietnam maids. Is this what you want us to follow?

Poor emucc, do you know why you keep beaten by your silly argument? Simply because your ugliness and stinky cause already become a theory in IR sociology. You condemn and preach not because China is that or this, but simply because we are not of your kind. That's the finding of constructivist theory in IR. With minor addition, I could simply beat you in every front, because your norm, behavior and cultural preferences already exposed.

That's also what make you an ugly duckling in this region.
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Post time 2007-2-19 16:43:58 |Display all floors
Originally posted by laotsu at 2007-2-19 10:59
dont forget the railway system that the Britishers implemented is still there today, without it, nationalisation of India is unthinkable.
India would still be a a mosaic of principaliies probably even more disastous to each other than the creation of Bangdesh and Pakistan ha sbeen.

There was also a famine in the1940s, that surely was not British made.


Railways?
To take the loot out as fast as possible.

Mosaic disastrous?
Not the situation before British rule!

Famine?
Due to centuries of mismangement and ZERO investment.
The British had a policy and that was: DO NOTHING! So everything crumbled after a couple of centuries!

[ Last edited by changabula at 2007-2-19 04:45 PM ]
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Post time 2007-2-19 17:00:01 |Display all floors
Distortion of Indian History

Two points become clear:

First, the history being taught in Indian schools and colleges was created by colonial masters and their willing servants to serve anti-national interests and damage India's heritage and culture.

Second, institutions created to serve national educational goals were dominated by self-serving individuals who are hostile to national aspirations.

  1. http://www.hindunet.com/forum/showflat.php?Cat=&Number=71936&page=0&view=collapsed&sb=5&o=&fpart=1
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As Swami Vivekananda pointed out more than a century ago:

"The histories of our country written by English [and other Western] writers cannot but be weakening to our minds, for they talk only of our downfall. How can foreigners, who understand very little of our manners and customs, or religion and philosophy, write faithful and unbiased histories of India? Naturally, many false notions and wrong inferences have found their way into them.

"Nevertheless they have shown us how to proceed making researches into our ancient history. Now it is for us to strike out an independent path of historical research for ourselves, to study the Vedas and the Puranas, and the ancient annals of India, and from them make it your life's sadhana to write accurate and soul-inspiring history of the land. It is for Indians to write Indian history."

[ Last edited by changabula at 2007-2-19 05:04 PM ]
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