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55 new economic terms since founding of PRC
In 1984 China returned to the big Olympic family and won the first Olympic gold medal. Today the Olympics not only displays the strength of the China's competing sports but also has become a carrier of national pride for the Chinese people. The 2008 Beijing Olympics has furnished a new engine for the Chinese economy.
White collar is a term designating a person who works in a luxurious office building for a firm with foreign investment and earns a higher salary than ordinary people. There are now also derivatives such as "gold collar" and "pink collar". More often than not people love to call girls "white collar ladies" who are dressed in neat business wears but are much busier than other people. The white collar is a special stratum in the city. They represent a kind of life mode and attitude, which have nothing to do with the amount of salary.
When the government and unit no longer take care of everything for the individual, when various problems such as unemployment and medical care are put on the table the safeguard significance of insurance to people's lives is particular obvious. Therefore various commercial insurances appear in people's lives and are gradually recognized and accepted by people. After all, what insurance buys is a certain kind of safeguard for the future.
China no longer shies away from discussions of wealth. "Letting some people get rich first" became a very enlightened policy. Therefore today's China has several dozens of magazines related to "wealth" and 201 websites with the word "wealth" in their names. Search the word on the Internet with your computer you will find millions of web pages discussing wealth. Also related to wealth foreigners and Chinese put forward various lists of rich men whilst ordinary people are becoming more and more concerned with family and individual financing.
CBD means core business district. It is a loanword, which has become fashionable in recent years. A place in a city where office buildings, foreign enterprises and the white collar are concentrated is probably a CBD. A CBD is the mirror of a city's economy, which represents the city's level of internationalization. Amid the surge of CBD construction in many cities the true CBDs up to international standards are hard to find.
Spring Festival Gala
In China Spring Festival Gala designates specifically the annul TV gala held by the CCTV on the eve of Spring Festival. Its annual appearance is referred to by the Chinese as a main course in the banquet on Spring Festival Eve. The 20-odd-year-old Spring Festival Gala, which is held every year no matter what, has made stars many actors including Chen Peisi, Song Dandan, Zhao Lirong and Zhao Benshan, and has left behind many oft-quoted and widely loved works. Watching the Spring Festival Gala together with the whole family has become a new custom of spending the Lunar New Year for the Chinese. However, as times change the decline of the Spring Festival Gala is all the more obvious.
Honest and trustworthy
It is an old term. But it has for a long time been forgotten and ignored. With the development of market economy and as trade rules and credit system are increasingly improved the term - honest and trustworthy is again called for and defined as an indispensable rule.
In the press and publishing circles the emergence of the concept - "media" brought with it an imperceptible yet profound impact. Although China has not enacted corresponding press law, the Constitution does endow the media with basic right and responsibility of "supervision by public opinion".
Crackdown on counterfeits
A young man called Wang Hai wearing a pair of sunglasses invented a new method of fighting counterfeits by which he knowingly buys fake products and then makes claims for compensations. Although his behaviors gave rise to many reproaches the consumers fed up with sham and counterfeit products gave him enough understanding and tolerance.
The word, which originally means a willingness on the part of the seller to give up a portion of profit, has more and more become a strong request from the buyer. The concept of discount usually occurs in one of two situations. One is when supply exceeds demand and competition is fierce. Discount under this circumstance is also called "price battle". The other is when the pricing mechanism of monopolized industries is not transparent enough or prices of products and services are not reasonable, and the consumer hopes to cut loss through "discount".
Non-public ownership economy
As an important part of the socialist market economy the birth and growth of China's non-public ownership economy are of particular importance. Broader non-public ownership economy includes enterprises with foreign investment, private enterprises and self-employed businesses etc. Today non-public ownership economy accounts for more than two thirds of the national economy and is continuously increasing its contribution ratio to the general economic growth. Non-public ownership economy is a main channel of employment and a fresh force in export. Its industrial distribution is expanding from traditional industries into newly-emerged hi-tech industries. Sticking firmly to developing non-public ownership economy has become one of the basic economic policies in China.
Poverty alleviation through development
After some people have become rich first China began to adopt measures to help needy people lift out of poverty, who live in former revolutionary base areas, areas inhabited by minority nationalities, remote and border areas and poverty-stricken areas. Various policies and measures such as the Seven-Year Priority Poverty Alleviation Program and "transfer payment" have achieved evident successes. The "Honorable Cause" initiated by private entrepreneurs such as Liu Yonghao features alleviation of poverty through development and is regarded with high opinion in the society. The project has been affirmed by relevant UN institutions. For now Chinese population living in poverty has been drastically reduced. However the task of poverty alleviation is till heavy and the road long.
Reform and opening up
In the 55 years since the founding of the New China no term is more exciting than "reform and opening up". Symbolized by the Third Plenum of 11th Central Committee of CPC (1978) China had entered a new era of reform and opening up which centers on economic construction. Reform and opening up changed the fate of the nation and made Chinese people rich. For this reason reform and opening up became an important content of Deng Xiaoping theory.
Corruption has always been a malignant tumor in the body of the Republic. Meanwhile anti-corruption has also become a core task of the ruling party in strengthening governing capabilities. In recent years as anti-corruption steps up intensity corrupt officials follow one another to be caught. However, statistics show that the "corruption latency period" of corrupt officials has increased from the average 1.4 years in the 1980s to current 6.3 years. So anti-corruption task is still arduous.
Real estate is an industry related to the life of the general public, which is also an outcome of marketization. In the era of planned economy there was no commercial housing, let alone real estate speculation groups. Now real estate has become a barometer of economic development.
SARS stands for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. This deadly disease, which made the whole world panic and has since not been deciphered, tested China's health care and disease prevention and control system. It also made people think about the relationship between growth and the cost of growth.
In the traditional thinking of Chinese they wouldn't easily borrow money from others. When this thinking faces the brand-new concepts of modern market economy people is beginning to actively or passively accept loans - loans can be borrowed to purchase a house; poor students can apply for student loans etc. Credit consumption is becoming a new consumption mode.
GDP is short for gross domestic product. It represents the aggregate of value growth of all industries in a particular accounting period. It is a quantitative index of a country's economic development. Since 1978 China's GDP grows at an average annual rate of 9.4 percent. Particularly after the 1990s when average annual world GDP was 1 percent China's GDP grew at an average of 10 percent. For this reason GDP became China's pride. Nevertheless people increasingly notice that GDP cannot measure everything and growth is not equal to development. People began to view GDP more objectively.
The Shanghai Stock Exchange opened on December 19, 1990. On July 13 in the following year Shenzhen Stock Exchange opened. Since then China's economic life has become even more bright-colored. The appearance of stock market provides enterprises with financing channel and the general public with investment and speculation opportunities.
College entrance examination
In the 1950s and 1960s few were able to attend the college entrance examination. During the "Cultural Revolution" higher education institutions were closed and college entrance examination canceled. In 1977 college entrance examination was reinstalled, which opened a new road for the young talents pent up for ten years. According to statistics enrolled college students in China have reached 20 million in 2004 and the scale of higher education in China has jumped to the No.1 position in the world. Apart from college entrance examination people who wish to obtain various qualifications must take numerous tests such as TOEFL and IELTS etc.
Following several sand and dust storms in the Spring of 2000 some reports said the desert on the north of Beijing was only 70 kilometers away from Tiananmen Square. Therefore the Chinese began to realize how important environmental protection is after committing such follies as destroying forests to make room for farmlands and enclosing lakes to create farmlands. Environmental protection is of course not only the restoration of farmlands into forests and retrieval of grasslands from livestock farms. Nor is it only the national tree planting in April each year. It also includes such comprehensive treatments as of atmospheric environment, water resource environment and urban living environment. What is more fundamental is that it entails the fostering and establishment of environmental protection awareness among all citizens.
In 1998 according to the newly-released Organic Law of the Villagers Committee more than 5 million villages in China could choose their own heads of villagers' committees through direct election. The general public describes it vividly as "sea-election". Today experiments have begun in the open recruitment and democratic election of officials at the department and bureau level.
Personnel, who returned from after obtaining an overseas education, are generally called overseas returnees. They were once the models and idols of the youth. They usually have an overseas educational background and the newest way of thinking. For many years lots of overseas students have returned to China to start an undertaking and achieved remarkable accomplishments.
"Laowai" has long been the term with which Chinese call a foreigner. Laowai was once a "rarity" in China, who often attracted the watching by crowds. Once upon a time foreigners and Chinese lived along two parallel lines of life in a city that never crossed. Now more and more foreigners come to China, many of whom have blended into the lives of Chinese while others have obtained China's green cards.
Chinese now enjoy three week-long holidays each year, which fall respectively on the Spring Festival, May Day and National Day. Of them May Day and National Day are customarily called "golden weeks". The change of working hour system shortened 6 working days each week to 5 days. The addition of leisure time has fostered the development of recreation industry.
The Internet is a brand-new thing that has changed people's life. What is more it may be called something that brings about subversive changes. People suddenly discovered that the world in front of the computer is made small at the clicking of keyboard. People can not only experience the real life but also feel the unprecedented virtual world through networks. There is no doubt that this kind of change is bound to continue.
Special Economic Zone
In the Spring of 1979 a great man drew a circle by the South China Sea. From them on China has its special economic zones and initiated a new mode of economic construction. Special economic zones are special in that it enjoys certain special policies during particular transition periods and have created development speeds that are especially fast. Meanwhile, it fully demonstrated the ingenious combination of the flexibility of "groping forward by feeling for stones to cross a river" and the principle of "development being the ultimate criterion". There may be one day when the special zone is no longer "special". But the experience it left behind is especially valuable.
On the zero hour of July 1, 1982 population on the Chinese mainland reached 1,031,882,511. Now China's population has exceeded 1.3 billion. Overpopulation brings enormous pressure on various aspects of social and economic development. For this reason starting from the 1970s family planning has become a basic national policy. In large and medium-sized cities it has become quite normal for a couple to have only one child.
Scientific development outlook
The SARS disaster that suddenly broke out in 2003 sank more people into reflection over the cost of growth. Overheating in certain industries and the following energy resource and transportation shortages alarmed people. Therefore the new generation leadership of the central government timely put forward the scientific development outlook of "all-round, balanced and sustainable development". The proposition of this thinking means that the old crude growth mode that emphasizes quantitative increase without considering resource environment and social cost will be put to rest. We will adopt a new growth mode that has an overall planning and pays more attention to quality and returns.
The label formed by a few water waves, a sprout and the letters - "LB" has become one of the symbols that the general public cares most. The concept of "green" started off being related to environmental condition. Later the application of green label became increasingly extensive ranging from dishware, furniture, housing to automobiles and tourism. Recently even construction of websites wants to be green. It seems "green" is not only related to safety of material life but also to safety in cultural areas.
For a rather long time tax payment seems to be matters that concerns only businesses. Nowadays more and more people realize that paying tax is a duty of a citizen. Therefore some private entrepreneurs are commended for paying more taxes whilst some celebrities are censured because of tax evasion. As income is raised so is the number of taxpayers. Apart from personal income tax new types of tax such as "inheritance tax" is also under discussion. On the premise of general tax payment the general public begin to have "taxpayer" awareness and require the government to provide better services based on this.
China is traditionally an agricultural country. With the reform and opening up a great many farmers and rural labors migrate to cities to look for jobs in the industrialization and urbanization process. So were born farmer workers. This quietly-emerged group is playing an increasingly irreplaceable role in China's economic construction. Their living environment and their various inherent needs have caught more and more attention of the society and the government.
Moderate prosperity in all respects
At the beginning of the 1980s Deng Xiaoping proposed the three-step development strategy. By then the simple criterion of "moderate prosperity" is a per capita income of $800. Now per capita income in China has exceeded $1,000, but China is still not "moderately prosperous" enough in many respects. Therefore, moderate prosperity in all respects has become the goal of next step.
Incorporating human rights into the Constitution
In 2004 the 2nd meeting of the 10th National People's Congress adopted an amendment to the Constitution by which the phrase "the state respects and safeguards human rights" was written into the Constitution. "Incorporating human rights into the Constitution" has an epoch-making significance. After the liberation and as they enjoy an affluent life the Chinese people finally found the feel of masters at a higher level.
In the middle of the 1990s following the emergence of some abnormal phenomena in the development of national economy the government actively intervened with macro-control measures and achieved the great success of drastically reducing prices while maintaining a relatively high economic growth. According to international opinions this was a successful soft landing. Today macro-control is becoming a commonly used measure to settle the periodic and structural discrepancies in the economic development. Soft landing is also viewed as an ideal situation when the above-mentioned discrepancies are reconciled in a timely manner.
From the summon of "Science to Go" voiced at the beginning of the PRC to the High Tech Research and Development (863) Program enacted in the 1980s China's scientific and technological undertaking keeps scaling new heights and creating new miracles under the strategic judgment that "science and technology is the primary productive force". First, the "Shenzhou" manned spaceship sent the astronaut hero Yang Liwei into the space, then multi-pilot manned space flights are planned. "Shenzhou" became a classic work symbolizing the success of China's hi-tech undertaking. It enabled Chinese people to "take off" and brought the Chinese people the respect of the whole world.
The proposal and establishment of the concept is of epochal significance. Before that we had the experience of groping for "planned economy" and we had the embarrassment of "giving priority to planned economy with due consideration of market economy". Only when the 14th National Congress of the Communist Party of China explicitly suggested "market economy" was the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics suddenly enlightened. However, we are doing a far inadequate job in establishing and improving the market economy. We even have to face new problems such as the "market economy status". But we have no choice but to "learn the laws of war in a war" and carry the market economy to its end.
Three rural questions三农问题
China is traditionally a big agricultural country - a basic characteristic that has not been fundamentally changed ever since. Therefore the "three rural" questions that stand for the agriculture, rural areas and farmers questions have influenced the economic development of whole China and is linked with the stability of the Chinese society. For many years lots of conceptions, measures and tests aimed at solving the "three rural" questions have been proposed and implemented, which have made rather successful achievements but which also have many hard-nut problems. Now a unanimous common understanding is that solving of the three rural questions can no longer be delayed.
Three Gorges project
On April 3, 1992 a resolution was adopted at the 5th meeting of the 7th Central Committee of the National People's Congress to build Three Gorges project with 1,767 of the attending delegates in favor of it, 177 against and 664 abstaining from voting. During the more than ten years the Three Gorges dam has been erected in the middle of the river. Main body project and principle supporting projects have been generally completed and begun to generate electricity. The huge investment of the Three Gorges project, arduous migration work, its expected economic function and possible negative impact will probably be discussed for a long time to come. However, it cannot be denied that the Three Gorge project like other great projects such as the West-to-east Electricity Transmission, West-to-east Natural Gas Transfer, South-to-north Water Diversion projects incarnate the abundant strength and fight-the-nature resolution of the Chinese people.
Since 2001 the audit report that the National Audit Office began to submit to the Standing Committee of the NPC has gradually caught the attention of the general public. These audit reports revealed many rule-violating facts and named some departments and persons directly responsible for them in such a way that some corruption cases were exposed. The reason the general public call the work of the National Audit Office "audit storm" is because it washed away dirt and dust and cast sunshine on the spending of taxpayers' money
Fashion may be a precious watch or a latest dress design. Fashion may be practicing yoga and learning Taekwondo in a gymnasium, or dancing Yangge and street dance. Fashion may be a traditional tea art, may be Haagen-Dazs, may be someone's arrangement for his room, or may be a song that lots of young people love to pass on. In a word, fashion is a kind of life mode or life appeal that can catches on quickly. It adorns people's life and can effectively stimulate consumption. The changeful fashion is one of the factors that pull economic growth.
As a new thing hearing is viewed as a reflection of democracy. From the appropriateness of a legal article to the price adjustment of water, electricity and gas that concern the general public the official hearing system provides a channel for ordinary people to express opinions and suggestions. Whatever the outcome may be the system itself is widely regarded as a kind of progress. However, apparently people are still expecting the system to play a really effective role.
After 15-year-long marathon negotiations China officially acceded into the World Trade Organization on December 11, 2001. The WTO suddenly entered our lives. The WTO is closely linked with the lives of Chinese people, for on the one hand according to the estimate of World Bank China's export would quickly jump to the second position in 20 years after its accession into the WTO, second only to the US. On the other hand the WTO will bring along numerous compulsory constraints, which demand amendments and improvements of out laws and regulations and further opening up of our market. In short this is a battle that combines opportunities and challenges.
West China development
At the beginning of this century China established the West China development strategy. In the last four years more than 3,000 yuan of the central strategic construction funds has been spent on the development of west China and more than one third of the long-term construction national debts has gone to it. Besides, companies in the east region, particularly the private companies are also actively participating in the West China development. By the joint efforts investment and economic development speed in the west region is picking up and the urban and rural regions look completely new. In order to enhance the coordinated development of regional economies a strategy of reinvigorating the old northeast industrial base has also been implemented following the West China development strategy. These development strategies both in the east and the west will boost up the staying power of China's economic development.
Reemployment of the laid-off
The phrase should be two concepts with different yet closely linked meanings. "Layoff" is "pangs" as a result of industrial restructuring and reform of the economic system. It is also the aftermath of the conflicts that have been accumulating for years. However, this particular unemployment phenomenon should by no means be treated lightly. Fortunately since the worker brothers make constant efforts to improve themselves; the government takes different measures and private economy opens up extensive employment channels the "reemployment" project is progressing smoothly.
Nowadays "petty bourgeoisie" is a term that has basically rid of its ideological and class sense. It no longer has derogatory sense in it. On the contrary it expresses more of a life mode, a life appeal and a life attitude. The concept of "petty bourgeoisie" reflects the diversity of social life and freedom of the society.
Foreign enterprise is short for enterprise with foreign investment. In an age when foreign enterprises were rare, working in a foreign enterprise was the dream of a great many people. In an age when foreign enterprises appear like bamboo shoots after a spring rain foreign enterprises are also the best end-result of many people who look for a job. Today China attracts the most direct foreign investments in the world.
In line with international practice接轨
Amid the wave of economic globalization the Chinese economy has blended into that of the world. Therefore with regard to industrial standards, laws and policies, government working style, mode of personal intercourse and other aspects we must get in line with international practice. This is a new realm to be opened up to the outside world.
Putting people first以人为本
Putting people first was once a very old concept. It is the foundation of the traditional "benevolence" theory in Confucianism and the core of humanism in the west. In the 21st century it is not only a stronger call from the Chinese people but also in an increasingly clear way becomes an important basis of the governing thinking of the ruling Party. Under the reference of the "putting people first" thinking, "governing for the people", "power exercised for the people, love tied to the people and benefits sought for the people" have become inevitable. Relevant laws and regulations must be branded by it. "Good administration" or "vicious administration" is distinguished by referring to it.
Administration according to law
"Administration according to law" has been proposed for many years. But never in the past has it found its way so deep into people' heart where it is deeply loved. In China which lacks the tradition of rule of law people came to realize after 55 years' practice that without a sound rule-of-law system a country cannot be governed well. Although construction of rule of law is far from being perfect, as long as we proceed firmly down the path of administration according to law the future is bright.
One country, two systems
In 1982 Deng Xiaoping for the first time proposed the concept of "peaceful reunification and one country, two systems" during a conversation, which brought forward a creative solution for the return of Hong Kong and Macao and final settlement of the Taiwan question. As the five-star red flag was raised on July 1, 1994 and December 20, 1994 Hong Kong and Macao were returned to China, and China no longer had even an inch of its territory controlled by foreign countries. Now although the Taiwan separatists are still trying to split China the pace of China's reunification process cannot be held up. Under the one-country-two-systems mode the reunification of the two sides is but a matter of time.
Some domestic researchers believe the Chinese social structure is transformed from "pyramid type" into "olive type", with the accompanying appearance of middle class. The appearance and growth of this group is bound to bring about new and profounder changes to the social development.
Until the 1980s China's export was composed mainly of agricultural products and mineral products. Nowadays Chinese mechanical and electrical, textile and electronic products are exported in huge quantities. Chinese tourists in foreign countries unheedingly purchase souvenirs labeled "made in China". The world has viewed China as a manufacturing base. Some people with hidden intents even deem "China-made" as "China threat". For our part we are more concerned with how to invent more "Chinese brands" with independent intellectual property rights and form stronger core competence.
After bidding farewell to the "target" era of the planned economy the Chinese society entered an "index" era. The original meaning of index is the ratio of the numerical value of a certain economic phenomenon within a particular period of time to that of the same phenomenon within a comparable standard period of time. However, today's indices are not limited to indices reflecting economic phenomena such as prices and stock markets etc. Things closely linked with ordinary life such as influenza, clothing, climbing, morning exercises and car washing all have their own indices. This is a vivid expression of social progress.
The concept is the last security line that the government prescribes for each city to guarantee the "minimum living standard for citizens". As for now the criteria are different in different cities. Some of them are higher and some are lower. The long-term objective is to "have all their essential needs met those who are eligible". In the meantime consideration should be given to the social security of farmers.