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欢迎大家探讨:第三十届韩素音翻译竞赛(汉译英) [Copy link] 中文

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Post time 2018-2-24 09:45:12 |Display all floors
This post was edited by english2008 at 2018-3-17 16:07

地名中的传统文化含量

       中国具有悠久的文明历史,留下了丰富多彩的历史篇章。历史有时间与空间这两个维度,直白地说,历史就是人们在一定的时间和特定空间创造的事件。时间是流动的,“逝者如斯夫,不舍昼夜”。空间却相对的固化,“人生代代无穷已,江月年年只相似。”(张若虚《春江花月夜》)。读万卷书,行万里路。书中所见是历史的时间地图;路中所见是历史的空间地理。而空间地理首先是从地名反映出来的。

      年轻的时候读书,有机会到河南、陕西、山西、甘肃等地考察,每每见到《史记》、《资治通鉴》中常见的历史地名,在现实中就呈现在我走过的这条路旁的界标上,总是感慨万千,油然升起一种穿越历史时空的苍茫感。中国悠久的历史和文化仿佛就在身边,并不那么遥远。地名是故乡的第一记忆。西晋末年,永嘉南渡,不少北方士民,被战争所驱迫,离乡背井,迁徙到遥远的南方去,他们不知道什么时候能回到故土。于是,设置了很多侨置的州县,沿用北方故土的名字。用地名保留故乡记忆是人类共同的感情。大航海之后的殖民扩张时代,欧洲人到了美洲、澳洲,给自己新的居住地,安上故乡的旧地名,这在美国、加拿大、澳大利亚,可以说是比比皆是,司空见惯。

      由此想到,当下的中国,许多地名是否能很好地保留祖先的历史记忆,传导深厚的历史文化底蕴?值得我们反思。

      比如说,今天许多省域的简称。安徽,境内有皖江,简称皖,自有其道理,其实安徽最深刻的记忆是徽。陕西简称陕,其实陕县在河南,陕之西并不是陕,而“秦”恰恰是陕西最深刻的记忆。又如,县级机构的设立是秦汉创建郡县制国家体制的基础要素之一。而郡县制是中国悠久历史中最具特色的制度。相反,区与市,却是很晚近的行政体制,中国历史上的市不是行政区划,现在作为行政区划的市是从日本移植过来的。可是,随着我国城市化的扩大,县改为市,成为普遍的事情,也许将来有一天,中国最古老的文化符号之一—“县”,就会逐渐消失。

      人类社会发展过程中,会丢弃一些传统的文化符号,这是正常现象。但是,这种丢弃一定有某种特定原因。否则人们一定是想方设法地保存历史记忆。联合国的非物质遗产申遗,大约就是鼓励这种行为。而地名的历史文化深度和广度,甚至要超过许多被保护的物质文化遗产。究其原因,在一段时期内,与历史和文化虚无主义有关。民国初年,北洋政府甚至禁止中医公开营业,许多中国传统的节日也被取消,包括正旦(俗称过年),代之以阳历新年。后来大约群众的习惯力量太强大,才改成了春节。现在我们都把过年叫春节。许多地名的更改,改得越没有历史味道,就显得越进步、越新潮,就跟这种思潮有关。

      近几年来,国家恢复了许多传统节日,把这些传统节日定为法定假日,这是一种提倡,一种态度。过节是人的需求,一种文化和情感的需求。就像节日的问题一样,我觉得有些被历史与文化虚无主义所妄改的地名,也应该正本清源,还其历史面目。对于各地的历史地名,进行一次拨乱反正,也许正当其时。

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Post time 2018-2-24 09:51:58 |Display all floors
This post was edited by english2008 at 2018-2-24 09:52

                     The content of traditional culture in geographical names
    China has a long history of civilization, enjoying a rich and colorful historical chapter.History has two dimensions: Time and space. Straightforwardly, history is the events that people created in a certain time and special space.Time is fluid, "Thus do things flow away, day and night." While space is relatively solidified, "generations have come and pasted away, from year to year the moons look alike, old and new." ”(Zhang Ruoxu's A Moonlit Night on the Spring River.

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Post time 2018-2-28 11:54:13 |Display all floors
China boasts of a time-honoured history of civilization compiled with resplendent historic chapters. History has two dimensions of time and space. In other plain words, history is events created by human beings during certain spans of time and specific spaces. Alas, how time is flying,regardless day or night, meanwhile the space is relatively static. There're endless generation after generation of human life, yet the moon above the river looks alike at best year after year which Chinese poet Zhang Ruoxu composed in his poem A Moonlit Night on the Spring River.There's a saying that reading ten thousand volumes, and setting ten thousand miles afoot asw well. What we read in books is the time map of history; what we view on roads is the spacial geography of history, yet, the spacial geography is first reflected from toponyms.

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Post time 2018-2-28 12:58:19 |Display all floors
读万卷书,行万里路。
这里应该是说明读书与行路同样重要。
Reading thousands of books is equal to traveling thousands of miles

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Post time 2018-3-5 16:32:12 |Display all floors
When I was a young student, I took the opportunities to visit Henan, shaanxi, Ganshu, etc. and did the researches on the spots. The feeling of vicissitudes transversing time and space that came upon me,and all my deepest emotions were triggered each time, whenever I past over the territory signposts on the road seeing those familiar place names recorded in History Memoirs(Shiji) and History as Mirror, as if the Chinese age-old history and culture had been just next to me, and not so afar. Toponyms are the footprints of memory of hometown. AT the end of West Jin Dynasty, and ,there was a massive exodus. Many civilians had to uproot themselves and moved to the remoted south,and they had no idea when they could come back. Thereof, many migrated county names followed the ones in the home of the north. It is the common sentiment of humans to attach the old place names in the memory of their hometowns. And it was everywhere that in the US, Canada, Australia, Europeans christened their new settlements with names from the old countries during the era of the expansion of colonizations after Columbus'navigation.

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Post time 2018-3-5 22:57:28 |Display all floors
zhihu1 Post time: 2018-3-5 16:32
When I was a young student, I took the opportunities to visit Henan, shaanxi, Ganshu, etc. and did t ...

确实很见功力,点赞了

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Post time 2018-3-11 21:01:23 |Display all floors
zhihu1 Post time: 2018-3-5 16:32
When I was a young student, I took the opportunities to visit Henan, shaanxi, Ganshu, etc. and did t ...

In my humble opinion, this is a word for word translation only but that could have been done in another word order to highlight the main idea. It is not an easy job but it is worth a try.

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