Views: 12920|Replies: 43

Quarterbacks, Intelligence and Race   [Copy link] 中文

Rank: 1

Post time 2012-7-5 13:39:04 |Display all floors
This post was edited by Singularity at 2012-7-5 13:41

Quarterbacks, Intelligence and Race                

IQ matters in football, too.


by Michael H. Hart               

About 75 percent of the players in the National Football League (NFL) are black but most of the quarterbacks are white. Why is this?
It is probably because it takes more intelligence to be a successful quarterback in professional football than to play other positions, and the average intelligence of blacks is lower than that of whites. Hence, of those who have the necessary physical skills, far fewer blacks than whites have the intelligence to be a top-flight quarterback. One way to test this theory is to see if there is a correlation between the intelligence of a quarterback and his performance, and to see if there are racial differences in these measures.
Best and very nearly the smartest.
The owners and managers of NFL teams recognize the importance of intelligence, and they usually have players take an intelligence test before they are hired. Most teams use the Wonderlic Test, which takes only 12 minutes and consists of a set of 50 questions. It has been designed so that a score of 20 corresponds to an IQ of 100. More generally, a Wonderlic score of W corresponds to an IQ of (2W + 60). The Wonderlic test is not as precise as a full IQ test but it is much shorter and easier to administer. The Wonderlic organization does not release player’s scores, but most of them are eventually leaked to the press by players, agents, or management, and can be found on the internet.
Most people can improve their scores slightly with practice. These days, all serious quarterback prospects have agents, who urge their clients to practice. With hundreds of thousands of dollars at stake — perhaps millions — one would have to be stupid not to practice.
If the Wonderlic score is a good measure of intelligence, how do we measure the performance of NFL quarterbacks? This is obviously subjective, but the most widely used measure is the Quarterback Rating adopted by the NFL in 1971. It uses a complex formula that takes into account four aspects of a quarterback’s performance: the percentage of completed passes, the average number of yards gained per passing attempt. the percentage of passes that result in touchdowns, and the percentage that are intercepted. The league keeps careful records of each of those figures, and the Quarterback Rating of every active player for any season can be easily found on the Internet.
Of course, the performance of a quarterback varies from year to year, so his Quarterback Rating averaged over his entire career is a better estimate of his performance than his rating for a single year. Lifetime Quarterback Ratings of active players are all online.
Over the last 40 years there have been changes in the rules that favor the offense and quarterbacks in particular. As a result, Quarterback Ratings have gradually risen, so it is not fair to compare Lifetime Quarterback Ratings of current players with those who were active 20 or 30 years ago, but it is possible to make fair comparisons of quarterbacks who are contemporaries.

Lifetime QB


Top 11 Quarterbacks

Aaron Rodgers



Philip Rivers



Tony Romo



Tom Brady



Peyton Manning



Ben Roethlisberger



Drew Brees



Matt Schaub



Joe Flacco



Carson Palmer



Matt Ryan



Average of top 11



Top Black Quarterbacks

David Garrard



Donovan McNabb



Jason Campbell



Michael Vick



Byron Leftwich



Tavaris Jackson



Vince Young



Average of top blacks



[continued in next post]

Use magic tools Report

Rank: 1

Post time 2012-7-5 13:39:38 |Display all floors
I have examined the records of active quarterbacks who have been playing in the NFL for at least three seasons and made a list of the 10 highest Lifetime Quarterback Ratings (see table, above). As there was a tie for tenth place, there are 11 quarterbacks on the list. The table also includes the Wonderlic test score for each player. All eleven of those players are white.
I also made a list of the seven best active black quarterbacks who have played three or more seasons. Three of them (Michael Vick, Donovan McNabb, and Vince Young) have been much ballyhooed in the press because of some spectacular plays. The others are less spectacular but are consistent performers with good Quarterback Ratings. All seven are included in Table 1. The data for each of the 18 players are also shown in a scatter diagram (see figure, next page).
Even a cursory glance at the scatter diagram makes it clear that there is a relationship between a quarterback’s intelligence as measured by his score on the Wonderlic test and his performance as measured by his Lifetime Quarterback Rating. A more precise measure of that relationship — or between any two sets of numerical data involving the same individuals — is provided by the linear correlation coefficient between them, usually abbreviated r.


Donovan McNabb is a better player than would be suggested by his Wonderlic score alone. He and David Garrard are outliers in the sense that their Lifetime QB ratings are considerably higher than would be suggested by their test scores.

Statisticians define r by a formula according to which the value of r can never be greater than 1.00, nor less than -1.00. A positive value of r means that as the value of one quantity increases the value of the other quantity tends to increase also; a negative value means that as one quantity increases the other tends to decrease. A value of + 1.00 or of - 1.00 (perfect correlation) means that the data points on a scatter diagram lie in a perfectly straight line, so that knowledge of one quantity enables a perfect prediction of the exact value of the other quantity. If the value of one quantity has no effect at all on the other quantity, then r = 0.00, and the two sets of data are uncorrelated.                 
For the sixteen players, a correlation calculation shows that Wonderlic scores and Quarterback Ratings are positively correlated, with r = 0.75. This is a very high correlation, and suggests that a quarterback’s intelligence substantially affects his performance.
                 This is not surprising, since quarterbacking is perhaps the most cerebral position in football, or perhaps in any sport. A quarterback has to be familiar with more than 100 different plays (including blocking assignments and the routes of pass receivers). He must be able to see which possible receivers are too closely guarded by defensive players, and which ones can be thrown to safely. He must be able to recognize different defenses, and to adjust accordingly. When defensive players rush in on him, a quarterback must be able to decide whether to try a risky pass (which might be intercepted), or to throw the ball away (where it cannot be intercepted), or to simply accept being tackled for a loss while avoiding a costly fumble. He may have only seconds or fractions of seconds to make these decisions. Experience helps, but natural intelligence is important.
Of course, high intelligence alone will not make a good quarterback. Size, strength, and speed are necessary. No one thinks that if only he had practiced enough, Albert Einstein could have become a good NFL quarterback.
Could the relatively unimpressive performance of black quarterbacks therefore be due to inferior physical ability? That is theoretically possible. Although Asians have somewhat higher IQs than whites, there are no Asian quarterbacks in the NFL, probably because they are smaller than whites. In fact, however, black quarterbacks are not inferior to whites in size, strength, or speed. Most of them are physically very impressive.
For example, Donovan McNabb, who was the second player selected in the 1999 draft, is 6’2” tall, very strong, and hard to tackle. Vince Young is 6’5” tall, with a superb athletic build, and was the third player and the first quarterback chosen in the 2006 draft. Michael Vick, who was the first player selected in the 2001 draft, is probably the fastest quarterback ever to play in the NFL, and has repeatedly made dazzling plays. Many of the white quarterbacks in the NFL are also superb physical specimens, but on average the black quarterbacks are at least their equal, and perhaps superior. Nor is there any evidence that black quarterbacks do not perform as well as whites because of a lack of physical courage.

The real differences seems to be in intelligence. The average Wonderlic score of the leading black quarterbacks is only 18.6, which is equivalent to an IQ of just over 97, whereas the average Wonderlic score of the leading white quarterbacks is 30.2, which is equivalent to an IQ of slightly over 120. This means that the top white quarterbacks have, on average, IQs that are 23 points higher than the top black quarterbacks. Indeed, with the exception of Ben Roethlisberger, whose Wonderlic score of 25 is equaled by that of black quarterback Byron Leftwich, every one of the white quarterbacks on the list has a higher IQ than any of the black quarterbacks.
In sports, as in life, IQ counts for a lot.

Professor Hart is the author of Understanding Human History.

Use magic tools Report

Rank: 1

Post time 2012-7-5 15:21:20 |Display all floors
This thread is so fun!

Use magic tools Report

Rank: 1

Post time 2012-8-17 07:48:37 |Display all floors
So quarterbacks are smart!  I guess I can't be quarterback then

Use magic tools Report

Rank: 2

Post time 2012-9-13 22:46:40 |Display all floors
Big brains is important.

Use magic tools Report

Rank: 2

Post time 2012-9-19 03:28:04 |Display all floors

Use magic tools Report

Rank: 1

Post time 2012-9-26 21:14:37 |Display all floors
This forum should erase all these racial and eugenics threads: they don't belong here: they belong on a advanced Hindu forum instead.  This forum should just stick with porn pictures, and nothing more.  

CD, please go ahead and delete this thread and all other threads on genetic theories and race theories.  I will copy them and repost them on a Hindu-Indian forum instead, the future leader of the galaxy.

Use magic tools Report

You can't reply post until you log in Log in | register

Contact us:Tel: (86)010-84883548, Email:
Blog announcement:| We reserve the right, and you authorize us, to use content, including words, photos and videos, which you provide to our blog
platform, for non-profit purposes on China Daily media, comprising newspaper, website, iPad and other social media accounts.