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These states consumes some 8 mbd of crude oil equivalent mostly for FUEL and petrochemical commodity production. |
In Singapore, there is already a small number of automobiles. (less than 500,000 vehicles in a city of 5 million citizens and residents) About less than 1-10 residents ratio, a low rate of vehicle ownership. In such an enviroment, while the Island State refines about 1.5mbd, it EXPORTS most of it's refined FUELS.
In Hong Kong, high parking charges, high tax on refined fuels has kept vehicle ownership similary small. It's probably lower than in Singapore. While in Japan, car ownership ratio has been falling due to a complex disincentive package from high road tolls, high tax on refined fuel, to expensive parking charges, and strict vehicle inspection standards, and high service labour cost. (that made it cheaper to make "obsolete" a vehicle at vehicle age below 5 years before major servicing and parts replacement is needed)
In Japan we also expect REFINED FUEL exports, as the Japanese will be increasingly produce SURPLUS commodity due to lower domestic requirements.
The Koreans are a bit lagging behind this GREAT INDUSTRIAL ROBOTIC revolution, but will soon need to implement such system while continuing to export their vehicle either through rebadging or own brand exports.