Views: 2791|Replies: 6

How to Choose Happiness: Combat 5 Decision-Making Biases(e-c)practice [Copy link] 中文

Rank: 6Rank: 6

Post time 2009-3-25 21:55:00 |Display all floors
How to Choose Happiness: Combat 5 Decision-Making Biases

  如何选择快乐:去克服5个决定(/决策)偏见
choose.jpg

Choosing happiness can be hard work, but the effort often pays off.

  选择快乐可能是一项艰难的活动,但是努力常常带来的是回报。



"Life is the sum of all your choices." --Albert Camus

”认识=Sum(你的一切选择)"---Alburt Camus



Happiness is in our hands if only we could make the right decisions in life. Decisions often rely on making accurate predictions of how we will feel in the future. Unfortunately for us psychologists have shown that there are five major biases in the way we predict our future emotional states.


   在生活只要是能做出正确的决定,快乐就在我们手中。决定往往依赖于准确地预测我们在将来会如何感受。对我们来说不幸地是,心理学家们已经展示出有在预测未来情绪状态时,人们会有五个主要偏见。

The good news is that psychological research reveals that each of these biases can be countered. Understanding and remembering these five biases will help you make decisions that will increase your happiness.

  好消息是心理学研究表明其中每一个偏见都能被克服。理解并记住这五个偏见将会帮助你做出将会提高快乐程度的决定。
link2.JPG
Happy 牛 Year~!

Use magic tools Report

Rank: 6Rank: 6

Post time 2009-3-25 21:58:09 |Display all floors
1.The distinction bias
      差异偏见



What is it?

定义


Imagine this: you are offered two jobs. The first is an interesting job that pays $60,000 a year. The second is a boring job that pays $70,000 a year. For the sake of argument, imagine that everything else is equal - which do you choose?

  想象一下:有人给我们两份工作机会。第一个是一份每年6万美元、一份有趣的工作。第二份是一份无聊,每年7万美元的工作。为了说明起见,想象一下它们在别的方面完全一样--你会选择哪一份工作?

The distinction bias predicts that people will consistently over-estimate the importance of the $10,000 compared to how interesting the job is. Consequently, research shows that many will pick the boring job even though it makes them miserable and the extra money might well make little difference.

  差异偏见预计人们会一致都在拿工作有趣程度和1万美元之间过高估计1万美元重要性。因此,研究现实许多人会选择无聊的工作,即便它使人们悲伤,且额外获得的金钱起不到什么作用。


How to combat the distinction bias

  如何克服区别偏见


Ignore conventional wisdom - comparing options directly is often too difficult because we're forever weighing up apples against oranges. Instead focus on the pros and cons of each scenario individually then make decisions on that basis.

   对一般看法置之不理 - 要直接比较选择往往会很难,因为我们永远都在将两个完全不同事物拿来比较。相反,针对一个处境(/选择)下面存在的优点和缺点进行单独关注,然后以(从中得到的)那个偏见做决定。

» Read more about the distinction bias.

阅读更多”区别偏见“(注:原文有链结)



   2. The projection bias
投射偏见


What is it?
定义


Going to the supermarket when I'm really hungry, and without a shopping list, is a recipe for disaster. It will take an act of iron will to avoid returning without some kind of junk food. Later, after eating, I'll wonder how I could have bought junk food but forgotten healthy staples like rice and pasta.

  我来到超市,这时候我很饿,也没有(准备)一份购物清单,那么这注定会造成灾难。将需要钢铁般的意志才能回去时买一些垃圾食品。之后,等吃完后,我可能就会想自己怎么会买那些垃圾食品,却忘记像米、面这样的健康主食。

Part of the reason people make mistakes like this is that research shows the projection bias anchors us in current emotional and cognitive states. The present is often like an emotional cage which we can't break out of to understand how we will feel in the future.

  人们会犯这类错误的原因部分在于研究表明投射片偏见会将我们"钉在“当前情绪、感知状态中。”当前“往往就像一个情感牢笼,我们无法逃出去理解未来将会如何感受。


How to combat the projection bias

  如何克服投射偏见


To make the most accurate decisions about what will make our future selves happy we need to be in roughly the same emotional state at the moment of choice. The bigger the difference in emotional state between present and future, the worse the decision will be.

  要最准确的决定什么会让未来的”我们“快乐做出,我们就需要在选择时刻基本保持(和未来时一样的)情绪状态。在当前和未来的情绪状态差异越大,决定就越糟糕。


» Read more about the projection bias.

阅读更多”投射偏见“(注:原文有链结)
Happy 牛 Year~!

Use magic tools Report

Rank: 6Rank: 6

Post time 2009-3-25 22:01:38 |Display all floors
3.The impact bias

冲击力偏见


What is it?

定义


People often overestimate their emotional reaction to future events. Studies have found that two months after a relationship finished people were generally not as unhappy as they expect. It worked the other way around too: sports fans were generally not as happy as they expected when their team won. Finally, academics both overestimated how happy they would be when given tenure, and also overestimated their unhappiness at being denied tenure.

  人们往往过高估计了对未来时间的情绪反应程度。研究已经发现在一段恋情结束后的两个月,人们不如自己预料的那么悲伤。反过来也一样:体育迷通常在自己的球队胜利后没有自己预料的那么高兴。最后,学者即会高估自己获得终生聘用时的快乐程度,也会高估被拒绝终生聘用时的悲伤。


How to combat the impact bias

  如何克服冲击力偏见


First, consciously widen your future focus; remember that other events are bound to intervene. Second, remember that rationalisation tends to reduce the emotional impact of both positive and negative events. The future doesn't normally have such an extreme effect on our emotions (whether good or bad) as we imagine.

  首先,有意识地扩大对未来的关注;记着,一定会有其它事物来干预。其次,记着对于积极和消极时间的情绪冲击力,理智往往会让它们减弱。未来一般不会对我们情绪有我们想象的中的那样产生出极端影响(不论好坏)。

» Read more about the impact bias.

  阅读更多”冲击力偏见“(注:原文有链结)


   4.The memory bias

记忆偏见


What is it?

定义


When making decisions about the future, we naturally use events from the past as litmus tests. Unfortunately the type of memories we retrieve to make decisions about our future happiness are often biased to unusual examples that are either very positive or very negative.

  当我们做出有关未来的决定时,自然地我们用过去的事件作为”试金石“。不幸地是,我们获取用来对未来快乐上做决定的记忆经常是偏向(回忆)要么具有非常积极,要么非常消极的不寻常例子。

A study on subway travellers showed that people freely recalled their previous worst experience of missing the train. As a result they then predicted that if they were to miss the train later that day they would feel worse than did other people who had recalled less disastrous times they had missed the train.

  有一项研究中人们对过去错过列车时的过去最糟糕经历自由回忆。结果,这些人推测如果在那一天后来还会错过列车,他们的感觉就要比那些回忆起不那么具有灾难性地错失列车经历的人们要更糟糕。


How to combat the memory bias

  如何克服记忆偏见


Recalling more than one past instance of an event you want to make a decision about helps average out the emotion. Also, simply be aware that you are likely to recall the best or worst past example of an event.

  对你希望做出一个事件的决定回忆一个以上过去的例子有助于平均化情绪。另外,只要觉察到自己可能回忆最糟糕或最好过去某个事件例子的这一情况。

» Read more about the memory bias.

阅读更多”冲击力偏见“(注:原文有链结)


   5.Belief biases

信念偏见


What are they?

定义


Over time we build up many rules of thumb about the situations that make us happy (or unhappy). Unfortunately we often over-generalise these beliefs to situations where they don't apply.

  长期以来,我们对让我们快乐的情景(或不快乐的情景)积累了经验之谈。不幸地是,我们经常将那些信念泛化,对不适用的情景进行概括。

Research has uncovered four common belief biases:

  研究发现下面四类普遍信念偏见:


    *The contrast effect is the often incorrect belief that a good experience will be more enjoyable when it follows a bad experience (and that a bad experience will be worse when it follows good). Research on jelly bean tasting showed this can be a mirage.

          对比效应常常是指认为一个好体验在坏体验之后会更令人愉快(坏体验在好体验后会更糟糕)。对软糖豆品尝的调查(注:原文有链接)表明这可能是一种幻象。

    *More choice is often not better: Research with gourmet jams has found people can be happier, and even better motivated, when they have fewer options to choose from.

    更多选择不一定更好:研究表明,对美食果酱的调查发现当选择数目更少,人们会更快乐,甚至动力更大。

    *Adaptation: People often expect that repeated exposure to an experience will lessen the pleasure it gives. Research on ice cream, yoghurt and music showed that most people adapted to the taste, either coming to like it more, or at the very least dislike it less.

     适应:人们往往预料反复接受一种体验会减少愉快程度。(可是)对冰淇淋、酸奶和音乐的研究表明多数人会适应口味,要么逐渐更喜欢,或者,至少减少了不喜欢程度。

    *Certainty: People expect to feel happier when they have reduced the uncertainty in a situation. Often, though, mystery can increase pleasure.

    确定性:人们期待着当自己减少了处境下的不确定性就能更快乐。可是经常神秘性会提高愉快。


How to combat belief biases

  如何克服信念偏见


Research suggests the amount that we are swayed by each of these biases depends on how much we believe in them. So, just reading, remembering and believing (!) this post should allow you to combat the belief biases.

  研究认为我们被每一种偏见左右我们的程度取决于我们对它们的信任程度。所以,只要看、了、记住、并相信(!)了本帖应该就能让你克服信念偏见。


» Read more about belief biases.

  阅读更多”信念偏见“(注:原文有链结)
Happy 牛 Year~!

Use magic tools Report

Rank: 6Rank: 6

Post time 2009-3-25 22:02:17 |Display all floors
Following through on decisions

贯彻决定


Even after conquering these biases, we need to actually follow through with the decision. This is where the happiness-seeking individual gets into trouble again... Read the second part of this article: 4 Reasons We Fail to Choose Happiness.

  即便克服了上述这些偏见后,我们还得要实际贯彻这个决定。这一次,快乐追求者们又一次地陷入了麻烦当中....请阅读本文第二部分:我们没能选择快乐的四个原因。
Happy 牛 Year~!

Use magic tools Report

Rank: 6Rank: 6

Post time 2009-3-25 22:05:42 |Display all floors
4 Ways We Fail to Choose Happiness
我们没能选择快乐的4个原因
sad_face.jpg


There are two requirements for decision-making that will bring happiness in the future. First we need to know how a particular decision will make us feel in the future. To do this accurately we need to avoid the systematic biases that affect how we predict our future emotional states.

   要做出未来将会带来快乐的决定,有两个要求。首先,我们需要知道某个决定会让我们在未来有如何的感受。要准确地做到这一点,我们需要回避那些会影响我们预测未来情绪状态的系统偏见(注:这里是指第一篇文章提到的偏见)。

This is no mean feat in itself - the distinction bias, projection bias, impact bias, memory bias and belief biases are tricky customers.

  这本身就不简单了:区别偏见、投射偏见、冲击力偏见、记忆偏见以及信念偏见都是棘手的主儿。

Second we need to actually follow through with the decision. This is where the happiness-seeking individual gets into trouble again because even when we know what will make us happy, we still don't choose it.

  其次,我们需要实际中贯彻决定。这让追求快乐的人们又一次遇到了麻烦,因为即便我们知道什么会让我们快乐,我们依然不会去选择。

Christopher K. Hsee and Reid Hastie from the University of Chicago point to the four main reasons that we don't follow through with decisions that will make us happy (Hsee & Hastie, 2006).

  来自芝加哥大学的Christopher K. Hsee 和Reid Hastie 指明了四个让我们无法贯彻那些将会让我们快乐的决定的原因(。。。)
link2.JPG
Happy 牛 Year~!

Use magic tools Report

Rank: 6Rank: 6

Post time 2009-3-25 22:08:20 |Display all floors
1.Poor rules of thumb
  劣质的经验之谈


We each follow certain rules of thumb which mean that even though we know what will make us happy we still don't choose it. Here are two common examples:

   我们每个人都遵守某些经验,这说明即便我们知道什么会让我们更快乐,我们仍然不会去选择。下面是两个普遍的例子:

    *Don't waste: We hate to waste money. Research shows that when people have double-booked an activity they will choose whichever one is more expensive, even when they know they won't enjoy it as much.

    *不去浪费: 我们讨厌浪费钱。研究表明当人们已经定重了一项活动,他们将选择价格更贵的那个,即便他们知道自己不会有同样多的享受。

    *Variety is the spice of life: Research shows people choose variety even though they know it won't make them happier. Often choosing what we know we like - the same again - is the best option for maximising pleasure.

    *不同是生活的情趣。研究表明人们即便是知道不会让我们更加快乐也会选择不同种类。通常,选择我们知道自己会喜欢的(即:还是原来一样的)是获得最大愉快程度的最佳选择。



   2.Slaves to rationality

  理性(/理智)的奴隶


We like our decision-making to appear rational; unfortunately decisions that appear rational can make us less happy.

  我们喜欢让自己的决定看上去理性的;不幸地是,那些看上去理性的决定可能给我们带来的快乐更少。

Research shows that people prefer to receive a gift of a chocolate shaped like a cockroach over that shaped like a heart even though they know they'll prefer the heart-shaped chocolate. Why? Because they're told the cockroach shaped chocolate is worth $2 and the heart-shaped chocolate only 50c. It's more rational to choose the higher-priced gift - but it makes people less happy.

  研究表明人们更喜欢收到一份形状为蟑螂的巧克力而不是心形的巧克力来作为礼物,即便他们知道他们会更喜欢心形巧克力。为什么?因为,他们被告知蟑螂形状的巧克力要2美元,心形的仅50美分。选择更贵地礼物更合乎理智--可是,给人们带来的快乐却更少。


    3. Obsession with medium over outcome

  对媒介的执迷超过了结果

We love to collect tokens of value, whether it's air miles or cold, hard currency. In fact, we love collecting the tokens so much we quickly forget what they're for. Research shows people will strive hard to obtain a medium (tokens or money) while paying little regard to what that medium can actually be used for.

  我们喜欢收集价值的象征物,不论那是飞行里程数。。、。硬通货。实际上,我们是如此地喜欢收集它们,以至于我们很快地忘记了它们的作用。研究表明人们会努力去获得媒介(象征物或金钱)而将很少的关注放在媒介能作为实际的用途上。


4. Impulsivity

  冲动


What's interesting about impulsivity for Hsee and Hastie is that it's exactly what the other three factors are trying to protect against. Rules of thumb like 'don't waste' as well as our obsession with collecting tokens (money) work against our impulse to spend. Similarly trying to appear rational is another way of trying to limit our profligacy.

  对于Hsee and Hastie来说,冲动有趣的方面是它完全就是其它三个因素所要防御的东西。像:“不要浪费”和对象征物(金钱)的收集是和我们花钱的冲动相互抵触的。类似地,要看上去理性也是另一种试图限制我们自己挥霍(冲动)的方法。
Happy 牛 Year~!

Use magic tools Report

Rank: 6Rank: 6

Post time 2009-3-25 22:10:01 |Display all floors
Fool me twice, shame on me

  骗我第二次,可耻的是我自己



The reasons we sometimes fail to choose happiness are straightforward enough. First we find it hard to predict what will make us happy and second, even if we can make an accurate prediction, we still don't choose it.

  有时候,我们没有能选择快乐的理由很十分直截了当的。首先,我们觉得预测让我们快乐的的东西很难。其次,即便我们做出了准确的预测,我们还是不会选择它。

It's not the end of the world though. Clearly we do sometimes manage to make the right decisions, even if it is pure chance. Research suggests it's likely that being aware of these types of biases and lapses will help us fight against them.

  不过,这不是世界末日。明显地,我们的确有时候成功地做出了正确的决定,即便那仅仅是纯粹的偶然。研究认为觉察到这些偏见和失误会帮助我们克服它们。

Don't be fooled by what seem like trivial examples in some of the studies - they're all designed to mimic everyday decision-making. Also don't think that these are the kinds of mistakes that only 'other people' make. Almost everyone is convinced they are not like other people.

  不要被一些研究中琐碎的例子所愚弄--它们的设计都是为了模仿日常决定。而且,不要认为这些错误只有‘别人’会犯。几乎每个人都认为自己和别人不一样。

So next time you're making a decision that will affect your future happiness (and most decisions do), remember this post and don't make the same old mistakes again.

  所以下一次当你做出一个要影响你未来快乐的决定的时候(正如多数决定一样),记着这个帖子,不要再犯同样的老错误了。


(the end)
Happy 牛 Year~!

Use magic tools Report

You can't reply post until you log in Log in | register

BACK TO THE TOP
Contact us:Tel: (86)010-84883548, Email: blog@chinadaily.com.cn
Blog announcement:| We reserve the right, and you authorize us, to use content, including words, photos and videos, which you provide to our blog
platform, for non-profit purposes on China Daily media, comprising newspaper, website, iPad and other social media accounts.